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14 vocab


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This is when a clergy man had several benifices (offices) at one time. i.e. Antonie du Prat entered his cathedral for the first time in his funeral procession
Alexander VI
He was a spanish pope from 1492-1503. His court was notorious for scandal since he publicly acknowledged his mistress and his children. The name Borgia became a synonym for corruption.
Pope Leo X
This pope needed money to continue construction on St. Peter's basilica. To do this he authorized the papal dispensation required for albert's pluralism. Albert then loaned the money from the fuggers to pay for the dispensation. finally, pope Leo X gave him the permission to pay back his debts by selling indulgences.
Cardinal francisco Cisneros. he was born in 1436 and died in 1517).
This dude was born in 1426 and died in 1517. He was a reformer who would go to religious homes and he would make sure that the rules/ constituions of the church were being upheld. He set high standards for the traininig of the clergy.
Brethern of the Commmon Life
The Brethren of the Common Life was a religious organization in the Netherlands founded by Gerhard Groot in the last quarter of the fourteenth century. Gerhard Groot was a lay preacher who spoke out against the corruption and the declining spirituality within the Church. They wre a pioius group in the 15th century that were similar to the protestants. They wanted to make religion a personal and inner experience.
Martin Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546
He was the son of a successful miner. He became a professor of theology and launched the protestant reformation of the 16th century. He was directed to the Pauline letters by John Staupitiz when he was confused about monastic life being the road to heaven. After this he firmly believed that salvation came from faith in Christ and not external indulgences.
sinner could buy his repentance from the pope aka God on earth
John Tetzel
he was the friar appointed by the archbishop Albert. His slogan, "as soon coin in coffer rings a soul from purgatory springs" greatly aided his sales. Ppl could buy indulgences for themselves and those already dead.
What occurred at the Diet of Worms?
This Diet (assembly of estates)was the first for Charles V who was 21. Luther was summoned and ordered to recant,but he refused saying that, "unless I am convinced by the scripture or...reason--for I do not accept the authority of the Pope" Luther was declared an outlaw & denied legal protection but Frederick duke of Saxony protected him.
Ulrich Zwingli was born in 1488 and died in 1531
Zwingli (1488-1531), as a Swiss humanist he was an admirer of Erasmus. He introduced reformation in Switzerland when he was elected people's priest at the New Minister in Zurich in 1519. he thought htat the bible was the sole basis for truth.
Marburg Colloquy of 1529
it failed to solve the differences caused by the eucharist.
the catholic belief that the bread and wine are actually Jesus's blood and body.
this is what luther believed. It was the belief that Jesus is merely spiritually with us but the bread and wine are not transformed
people were critical of the late medieval church especially the educated citizens who disliked such irregularity and poor quality sermons. This resulted in the wealthy developing preacherships tht had priests of higher education who delivered abt 100 sermons per year that lasted 45 min.
The twelve articles of 1525
In the early 16th century peasantry worsened. there were crop failures in 1524-24. In 1525 representatives of the Swabian peasants met and wrote the twelve articles. This contained their grievances of nobles seizing common lands. It condemned the lay and ecclesiastical lords and summarized the agrarian crisis. The peasants thought their demands conformed with the bible and used Luther as a theologian to prove that they did.
larger catechism vs. shorter catechism
These comependiums of basic religious knowledge were published in 1529. The larger catechism were brief sermons on the main articles of faith while the shorter catchism was a concise explanation of the faith in question and answer form. borth stressed the importance of the 10 commandments, thte lord's prayer, the apostle's creed and the sacraments.
What Habsburg prince was chosen at 19 years old to become the holy roman emperor?
Charles V. The Golden bull of 1346 legalized government by an aristocratic federation& the 7 electors chose him. from 1500-1558 he ruled. he was heir to Spain(& spanish dominions in Italy, sicily and sardinia)due to his mother. From his dad he obtained Austria, S. Germany, the Low Countryies and French Comte in East Central France. He was the last medieval emperor in the sense that he thought he would rule the world and saw his duty as maintaining the political, religious unity of Western Christendom. He put international problems before Germany. He lacked the resources to effectively oppose Protestantism. He was occupied w/his territories and w/helping his bro Ferdinand against the turks who beseiged Vienna in 1529
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation(1520).
Luther wrote saying that unless the princes destroyed papal power reform was impossible in germany. He urged the princes to confiscate church wealth and abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons and clerical celibacy. He said it was their duty to bring about the moral reform of the church. He based his conclusion of the papacy's financial exploitation of germany.
this means to born again. they thought that only adultss could make a free choice about religion. They said there was no bible basis for baptizing infants. They took the gospels literally. They wanted a return to the type of church they thought the earlier Christians had. They thought that only a few ppl could obtain the inner light. It was a minority and attracted the jobless, poor and uneducated. Zwingli, Luther, Calvin, Catholics were right when they thought that separation of church and state would mean secularizatio nof society. The Anabaptists believed in religious toleration which was thought to undermine state-established churches.
Henry VII
he fell in love with Anne Boleyn and wanted to annul his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. But when he married Catherine he had obtained a papal dispensation fro mPope Julius II eliminating all legal technicalities about Catherine's prior union to his late bro, Arthur. Henry said that there would be anarchy if a woman, Mary, were to rule so he petitioned Pope clement VII for an annulment. He said that Pope Julius's dispensation contradicted the law of God(if clement gave in it would show that the popes really were corrupt). The sack of rome in 1527 kept the Pope busy and Henry VII used parliament to legalize the reformation in england.
william tyndale
he was an english humanist who stimulated reform. He visited luther in Wittenburg in 1524 and at antwerp. In 1523 he printed an english translatio of the new testament.
Act in restraint of appeals (1533)
In 1533 the act in restrain of appeals declared the King to be sovereign in England and forbade judicial appeals to the papacy thus establishing the crown as the highest authority in the land..
Supremacy act-1534
The supremacy act in 1534 made the king head of the church as well as the state.
book of Common Prayer-1549
this was written by Thomas cranmer who simpliefied the liturgy and had protestant theologians come to england and make the first book of prayer in 1549
John Knok was maybe born in 1505 and died in 1472.
Knox dominated the reform movement in Scotland. In 1559 Knox, who had worked with Calvin in Geneva was determined to structure the scottish church after Calvin's. He persuaded parliament to enact alws ending papal authority. Mass was abolished. He established the Presbyterian church of Scotland. It had a simple/digified service.
gustavus vasa
in 1520 this swedish nobleman led a successful revolt against denmark. As king vasa seized church lands he required bishop's loyalty to the Swedish crown.He aided Olaus Petri organize the church along Lutheran lines
Christian III
king of denmark (1503-1559) and Norway(1534-1559). He secularized church property and set up a lutheran church. Norway governed denmark until 1814 adopted lutheranism as its state religion under danish influence
The Council of Trent
this council met on and off from 1545-1563. it was also to secure reconciliation w/the protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists were invited to participate, but heir insistence that he scriptures be the sole basis for discussion made reconciliation impossible.The council reaffirmed the 7 sacraments and transubstantiation, rejecting Calvinist/lutheran positions. it tackled abuse by strenthening church discipline. bishop had to live in their own dioceses, suppressing pluralism and simony. it forbade the sale of indulgences, concubines had to be given up. bishops hadd to visit every house within the diocese in 2 years.
Ursuline order
This order of nuns was founded by Angela Merici (1474-1540). It attained prestige for the education of women.She established it in 1535 to combat heresy thru Christian education. It was the 1st owmen's order to concentrate on teaching young girls, they sought to re-Christianize society by training future wives/mothers. They spread to the new world and france.
who founded the society of Jesus?
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) He was a spanish soldier that had been wounded and was recuperating from ma severe battle wound in his legs. Loyola studied a life of Christ/ other religious books and decided to be a soldier of Christ instead. he spent a year in seclusion, prayer and personal mortification. He wrote spiritual exercises (1548)which was intended for study in a four week period of retreat.

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