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Staphylococcus epidermidis
ubiquitous on skin/mucous membranes;

1. Bacterial endocarditis involving prosthetic valve (extracell. slime)

2. Surgical prostethesis infection
3. Bacteremia
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
-Not normal flora

-UTI in sexually active 18-25 yr old females
Staphylococcus aureus
normal flora in skin/mucous membranes;

A. Diseases of skin
1. pimples/acne/folliculitis
2. Boils, furuncles
3. carbuncles
4. impetigo
5. cellulitis
6. Scalded Skin Syndrome (ritters dis)
B. Diseases of Digestive tract - food poisoning
C. Post-op/wound infections
D. Pneumonia
E. TSS-toxic shock
F. Osteomyelitis
G. bactermia, endocarditis, meningitis, UTI, stye.
6 extracellular substances --> mechanisms for S. aureus disease
1. Exfoliative toxin
2. Leukocydin
C. enterotoxin (exotoxin, heat-stabile)
D. coagulase
E. protein A
f. others - very virulent
S. aureus food poisoning
2-6 hr incubation
unrefrigerated hi-protein food ingestion
nausea, vomit, diarrhea
self-limiting in 24 hrs

cause: enterotoxins A and D
#1 cause of osteomyelitis
Staph aureus
Cause/symptoms of TSS
-Staph aureus TSST-1 exotoxin

Inital - hi fever, dizzy, vomit, diarrh.
48 hrs - sunburn rash, hypotensive
Streptococcus viridans
Normal flora in mouth/vagina

Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis in damaged (not prosthetic) heart valve (from Rheumatic fever)
Normal flora in intestine

-Wound infections
Strep group D non-enterococcus
Normal flora in wait it's RARE in humans

S. pneumoniae
normal flora in oral cavity (small #)

Pathogen because of capsule
1. Lobar pneumonia
2. Meningitis
3. Otitis media
4. Bacteremia
Pathology/symptoms of pneumonia
GPdC S. pneumonia enter lungs; Lobar consolidation from immune response.

High fever, shaking chills, sharp pleural pain, rusty sputum
Strep group A --> S. pyogenes
normal flora in oral cavity of some

1. Strep throat
2. Scarlet fever
3. Erysipelas, cellulitis
4. Impetigo
5. Wound infections
6. Pyogenic infections
Necrotizing fasciitis, TSS-like
7. Post-strep diseases (Acute glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever)
5 Extracellular products causing Strep pyogenes (groupA) diseases:
Streptokinase - breaks fibrin, spreads
Streptodornase - degrades DNA of host
Hyaluronidase - degrades connect. tissue
Erythrogenic toxin -scarlet fever color
Hemolysins O and S
symptoms of strep throat

symptoms of scarlet fever
pharyngitis, pyogenous tonsils, slight fever, cervical lymphadenopathy

strep throat + red rash from erythrogenic toxin
2 pyogenic Strep A infections:
necrotizing fasciitis - flesh eating
toxic shock-like syndrome
2 post-strep diseases
1. acute glomerulonephritis
2. rheumatic fever

both are hypersensitive reactions from prior infection. seen app. 3 wks after initial infection.
Who does Strep group B (agalactiae) typically cause infections in?

Normal flora in:

-Oral cavity in low #s. May colonize vagina but not normal.
#1 cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis:
Strep group B agalactiae
Infections caused by Strep group B:
Neonatal Meningitis/Sepsis
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Neonatal osteomyelitis
B-hemolytic STreps not A, B, or D:
normal flora in:
may cause:
Oral cavity
What gram positive catalase neg cocci is intrinsically resistant to Vancomycin?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes what infections?

By what four virulence factors?
Gonorrhea, Gonococcal pharyngitis, neonatal ophthalmia

-IgA protease (inhibits IgA)
symptoms of gonorrhoea:
Males: urethritis, dysuria, purulent dischare.

Females: cervicitis, vaginitis, itching/discharge or asymptomatic.

Both: proctitis
Gonorrhoea complications:
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
Gonoccal arthritis
Neisseria meningitidis causes what disease?
Saprophytic neisseria commonly normal flora in:
What diseases does Moraxella catarrhalis cause?
Otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis.
What infection is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae?

What causes the pathogenicity?


Lysogenic phage encoding exotoxin invades the bacteria; causes production.

Pharyngeal membrane, edema, fever, Bull's neck, lymphadenopathy.
Where are the Diphtheroids normal flora, what type of infection could they cause

which one is most common
skin, mucous membranes, vagina.

SBE, bacteremia. only opportunistic in susceptible people though.

Most commonly would be C. jeikeium.
Which Corynebacterium causes encrusted cystitis?
C. urealyticum - produces urease and an NH3 around itself protecting itself from phagocytosis. Chronic UTI
Type of infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes
Foodborne illness (from cold packaged hot dogs, cheese, milk)

Septicemia/Meningitis in Neonates and susceptible adults.
What does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae usually cause
Erysipeloid (localized cellulitis)

zoonotic disease from hogs to butcher or vet
2 types of Bacillus cause what three types of disease?
B. anthracis - anthrax

B. cereus - diahhretic or emetic food poisoning
3 variations of Anthrax:
-Cutaneous (forms black eschers)
Difference between emetic and diarrhetic food poisoning:
emetic is shorter 1-6 hr incubation
comes from fried rice

diarrhetic is longer 6-24 hr incubation
comes from meats/sauces
Infections by Haemophilus influenzae:
Respitory: Pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media.

Meningitis in infants under 2 yrs old

What infections would Haemophilus non-influenz. cause (hemolyticus, parainfluenzae, parahemolyticus, etc)?

Where normal flora
In suscp. patients, Bacteremia or SBE

normal in oral cavity
what does haemophilus ducreyi cause?

chancroid; painful ulcers, inguinal lymphadenopathy
What bacteria causes whooping cough?
Bordatella pertussis
what does bordetella bronchiseptica cause
respitory tract infections (pneumonia)
wound infections
what is especially frightening about Listeria monocytogenes?
If acquired during pregnancy, can cross the placenta and cause stillborn birth in a neonate.

or cause fetal infections of septicemia and meningitis.

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