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A&P Lab Chapter 4


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-3rd stage of mitosis
-Centromeres split
-Chromatids (chromosomes now) searate from one another and progress slowly toward opposite ends of cell
The structural and functional unit of all living things.  Differences in size, shape, and internal composition reflect their specific role in the body.
Direct formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division

-The genetic material is loosely disperesed throughout the nucleus in a threadlike form when the cell is not dividing

-The chromatic/genetic material when the cell is in the process of diving to form daughter cells
-The chromatin coils and condenses, forming dense, darkly staining rodlike bodies
The division of the cytoplasmic mass of the cell, not part of mitosis)

Cytoplasm fluid name...
-All the cell contents outside the nucleus.  The major site of most activities carried out by the cell.
-Cytosol - fluid within cytoplasm, fills the cell
Cytoskeletal element:
-Intermediate filaments
Resist mechanical forces acting on cells
Cytoskeletal element:
Provide cell with form of mobility
Cytoskeletal element:
-Form internal structure of centrioles
-Help determine cell shape
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-2 types
-Membraneous system of tubules that extentds throuhout the cytoplasm.  2 varieties:
-Rough:studded with ribosomes
-Smooth: site of steroid and lipid synthesis (production), lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification
Golgi apparatus
-Plays a role in packaging and transfering substances from cell or incorporation into plasma membrane and in packaging lysosomal enzymes
-Stack of flattened sacks with bulbous ends and associated small vesicles
-Found close to nucleus
Cell substances and structures that are not part of the active metabolic machinery of the cell
-A cell's regular life cycle while it's not dividing, but growing and carrying out its usual activities
-In an interphase cell about to divide, the genetic material (DNA) is replicated (duplicated exactly)
-Function to digest worn-out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell
-Have the capacity for total cell destruction if ruptured
-2nd stage of mitosis
-Chromosomes cluster at middle/axis of cell with their centromeres alligned at exact center/equator
-In some cells, the plasma membrane is thrown into minute fingerlike projections called microvilli.
-Greatly increase surface area available for absorption or passage of materials 
-ex: digestive tract
-Oxidezes food to produce ATP (cellular energy)
-Nuclear divson
-Product: 2 daughter nuclei that are genetically identical to the mother nucleus
Nuclear envelope
-A double-layered porous membrane bouding the nucleus.
-Distinguished by large nuclear pores 

-One or more small round bodies in the nucleus composed primarily of proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
-Assembly sites for protein (assemble ribosomes, which in turn make protein)
-"The control center of the cell"
-Necessary for reproduction - site of DNA (genes)

General functions

-"Small organs"
-The metabolic machinery of the cell
-Highly organized to carry out specific functions for the cell as a whole 
-Organelles: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes,
-Detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
Plasma Membrane

Its properties
-Separates cell contents from the surrounding environment.
-Selective permeability - plasma membrane plays role in determining which substances may enter or leave the cell and in what quantity (nutrients enter but keeps out undesirable substances).
-1st stage of mitosis
-DNA replicated in Interphase
-Chromatin forms chromosomes (chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids)
-Centromere - chromatids of each chromosome held together by this small, buttonlike body.  After chr
-location within cell
-Boidies composed of RNA and protein
-Actual sites of protein synthesis
-Floating free in the cytoplasm or attached to a membraneous structure (rouch endoplasmic reticulum)
-4th (last) stage of mitosis
-Prophase in reverse:
-Chromosomes uncoil and take chromatin form
-Spindle breaks down and disappears
-Nuclear envelope forms around each chromatin mass

A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid

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