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Anatomy Chapter 10F: (Lower) Leg Muscles


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Tibialis Anterior
Superficial muscle of anterior leg. Laterally parallels anterior margin of tibia.

O: lateral condyle and upper part of tibial shaft

I: by tendon to inferior surface of medial cuneiform and metatarsal 1

A: Prime mover of dorsiflexion
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Lateral to tibialis anterior. Unipennate muscle on anterolateral surface of leg.

O: lateral condyle of tibia

I: middle and distal phalanges 2-5 (toes) via extensor expansion

A: prime mover of toe extension
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Deep to extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior. Narrow.

O: anteromedial fibular shaft and interosseous membrane

I: distal phalanx of hallux via tendon

A: extends hallux
Peroneus Longus (Fibularis Longus)
Superficial lateral muscle overlying the fibula. Bipennate.

O: head and upper portion of lateral aspect of fibula

I: by long tendon that curves under foot to metatarsal 1 and medial cuneiform

A: plantarflexion, eversion
Triceps Surae
Muscle pair (gastrocnemius and soleus) that shapes the posterior calf and inserts via Achilles tendon into the calcaneus. Plantarflexion prime mover.
Superficial muscle of triceps surae. Bulge of the calf muscle.

O: 2 heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur

I: posterior calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

A: plantarflexion
Triceps surae deep to gastrocnemius. Broad, flat muscle.

O: superior tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane

I: posterior calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

A: plantarflexion
Tibialis Posterior
Thick, flat muscle deep to soleus.

O: superior tibia and fibula and interosseus membrane

I: tendon passes behind medial malleolus and under arch of foot to insert into several tarsals and metatarsals 2-4.

A: prime mover in inversion.
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Long, narrow muscle medial to and partially overlying tibialis posterior.

O: posterior tibia

I: tendon runs behind medial malleolus and inserts into distal phalanges 2-5 (toes)

A: plantarflexion and inversion
Flexor Hallucis Longis
Deep bipennate muscle lying lateral to the inferior aspect of the posterior tibia. Crosses over the tibialis posterior diagonally.

O: midshaft of fibula

I: tendon runs under foot to distal phalanx of hallux

A: plantarflexion and inversion

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