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gram neg cocci


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gram stain of neisseria and moraxella:
gram negative diplococci

frequently intracellular within PMNs
growth requirements of neisseria and moraxella:
fastidious and aerobic; require increased CO2
oxidase test on both genera:
positive; staph and strep are negative; a good confirmation that you didn't or did overdecolroize
neisseria gonorrhoeae growth characteristics

maybe takes 3 days to grow; incubate 72 hrs before calling neg; hates cold
special agar for gonorr growth:
Thayer Martin Agar
thayer martin agar contains:
CA base

VCN inhibitor
-Vancomycin - to inhibit GPC
-Colistin - to inhibit GNB
-Nystatin - to inhibit yeast
special about MTM (modified thayer martin)
contains trimethoprim to inhibit Proteus from swarming over everything (along with VCN)
colonial morphology of gonorrhoeae:
small, translucent, tan, raised, slightly mucoid
two other agars (other than thayer martin)
New york city
martin lewis
whats a jembec plate?
special plate for transporting genital specimens; inoculate to plate immediately so growth will start right away (72 hrs). With water droplet CO2 is released to enhance growth
when males have intracelluar gndc:
can presumptively say they have gonorrhea
what if women have intracellular gndc in their genital specimen?
could be acinetobacter or moraxella; need further testing
3 confirmatory I.D. methods for gonorrheae:
1. Carb tests (CTA) cystine trypticase agar
-surface growth (aerobic)
-only ferments Glucose
2. Does NOT grow on nutrient agar
3. 2 Alternate tests:
-Rapid carb tests
-immunological I.D.
disease caused by neisseria gonorrheae
4 virulence factors of n. gonorrheae
1. pili
2. IgA protease (inhibit secretory IgA)
3. endotoxin
4. Capsule
symptoms of gonorhea
-asymptom or itch/discharge

-urethritis, dysuria
-purulent discharge (thick and yellow)
BOTH: proctitis
how do you treat gonorrhea?
-resists penicillin, so

-injection of ceftriaxone
-oral doses of ciprofloxacin

-or, azithromycin in flouroquinolone-resistant gay men.
3 complications caused by gonorrhea
-PID pelvic inflam disease (fallop tube)

-gonococcal arthritis (bact in joints)

two additional diseases other than gonorrhea in genitals:
-Gonococcal pharyngitis

-Neonatal opthalmia
growth characteristics of neisseria meningitidis
-not as fastidious as gonorrhea; still best on CA in incr. co2 tho.

-this grows in CLUSTERS, where
-gonorrh. grew in PAIRS
tests for identification of neisseria meningitidis
-how it utilizes carbs (see chart)
-nutrient agar
alternate tests for meningitidis i.d.
direct tests
how meningitidis is transferred
symptoms of meningitis
headache, stiff neck, fever, chills, vomit, (all mening. have this)

what species causes meningitis with petechial lesions? what are they?
neisseria meningitidis

grows lesions
specimen for detection of meningitis
spinal fluid
how to treat meningitis
how many species of saprophytic neisseria?

normal floral site

special i.d. trick for neisseria saprophytics:
they grow on nutrient agar!
which saprophytic is usually responsible IF they cause a disease?
n. lactamica
which is the only lactose-utilizing neisseria?
n. lactamica
which is the only gnc to produce dnase?
moraxella catarrhalis
4 diseases caused by moraxella catarrhalis:
-otitis media in infants
-sinusitis in elderly/immunocomp
how to treat moraxella cataharllis, why?
with erythromycin; 85% produce b-lactamase
What agars does N. gonorrhoeae grow on:
-Thayer Martin Agar
-Modified Thayer Martin
-Martin Lewis

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