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APES Test 2


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how does one species replace another
facilitation, inhibition, tolerance
a species makes an area more suitable for a different species with its own separate niche requirements
lichens and squirrels are an example of this.
speeds up succession
interference competition. exploitation competition. succession only proceeds when this is disturbed
horse tail weed and sunflowers are examples of this.
late successional plants do this with plants of early stages of succession but are unaffected by them.
explains why late successional plants can thrive in mature communities without elimination early/mid successional plants
irregular mosaic describes....
fire, overgrazing, drought
savannahs, temperate grasslands, chaparral require this form of inhibition
fires to remove low lying veggies
these fires occur one to two feet above the ground
surface fires
in these, trees explode!!
crown fires
this causes grasslands to turn in to shrub/woodland
humans suppressing fire
this turns late successional communities into early succession monocultures
prevents opportunistic species from moving into a community
examples of monoculture
lawns, tree plantations
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
greatest species diversity in areas with frequent moderate disturbances. enough to allow opportunistic species in without eliminating late successional plants
better terms than succession
community development, biotic change
complex ecosystems are a series of positive and negative feedback loops and are
in a constant state of dynamic change
how much does it take to change a community? determined by...
inertia, constancy, resilience
ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered
most climax forests are this because
inert, fire resistant
these ecosystems have greater species diversity and greater npp
ability of a an ecosystem (or popltn) to stay within its means
bacteria don't have this
ability of a living system to bounce back after a major disturbance
communities with opportunistic species have this
grasslands are an example of this
drop in npp, nutrient loss, extxn of indicator species, increasing pest popltn, drop in species diversity, and the presence of contaminants all indicate--
community bad health
ecosystems reach their peak of biodiversity between -- and -- different producer species
10 and 40
who studied community islands?
robert macarthur and edward o wilson
species equilibrium model
thoery of island biogeography. size and isolation effect diversity of land plants and animals in a system
the number of species on an island is determined by....
the balance of the immigration rate to the island and xtxn rate of species established on the island
isolation doesn't effect which rates?
how many antibiotics originate from microorganisms?
of the 250000 known plant species, how many have been studied for their medicinal purposes?
how much do americans spend each year to watch wildlife?
$18.2 billion
fastest growing part of the global travel industry
ecotourism-- $30 billion per year
a species is so low in numbers, they can no longer fulfill their ecological duties in their biological communities
ecological extinction
a species is extinct in a certain area, but still found in other placesq
local extinction
species no longer found anywhere
biological extinction
species so small in numbers, could soon become extinct everywhere
species still plentiful in natural range, but numbers are rapidly declining
beyond this point, a species' survival is in question
minimum viable popltn size, critical popltn density
these make a species prone to extinction
low reproductive rate
specialized niche
narrow distribution
feeds at higher trophic levels
fized migration patterns
commerial value
large territory and/or large body size
biggest cause of xtxn
habitat loss due to human expansion
greatest eliminator of species
tropical deforestation
half of extinct species are this
island species
fragmentation does lots of bad things, including...
more exposure to edge, areas too small for minimum breeding, limits dispersion and colonization
how much of animal trade is illegal?
one half
how many animals species are faced with xtxn due to illegal trade?
second biggest cause of xtxn
deliberately/ accidentaly introduced nonnative species
what percent of endangered species are endangered because they are threatened by nonnative species?
how many individuals must you nhave in a captive popltn for a minimum viable popltn
keeping a minimum viable poltn in a zoo is very costly. how much per species?
$6 billion
egg pulling
wild eggs are taken, hatched in zoos
captive breeding
individuals are captured from the wild and bred with aim of reintroducing them to the wild
embryo transfer
surrogate mom from another (similar) species
cross fostering
parents of similar species raise young
what percentage of the world's beaches are eroding?
these stick out perpindicularly into the water and screw up dynamic equilibrium.
these are built parallel to the shore on the beach itself. it increases erosion on the sides of it, and only lasts 3 to 5 years. private property rights sometimes become an issue...
sea wall
large barrier raunning parallel to shore in the water below the low tide terrace. it's submerged. acts as an artifical coral reef. preventative method.
beach saver module
parallel to the shore out in the water. sticks out above the water. stops the onshore current.
like oversized groins.
these are often used around harbors
breakwaters and jettys
requires permits and fees for the use of federal grazing lands and plaed limits on the number of livestock that could be grazed
taylor grazing act of 1934
authorized the government to protect undeveloped tracts of public land as part of the national wildreness system unless congress later decides they are needed for the national good. land in this system is later used only for nondestructive forms of rec s
wilderness act of 1964
directs forest service to give equal consideration to outfoor rec, range, rtimber, water, wildlife and fish
multiple use sustained yield act of 1968
mandates that certain selected rivers of the nation which, with their immediate environments, possess remarkable scenic, rec, geologic, fish, wildlife, historical, cultural, or other simmilar values, shall be preserved in free flowing condition. it also
wild and scenic rivers act of 1968
protects scenic and historic hiking trails in the national trails system
national trails system act of 1968
plans to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, to restore or enhance, the resources of the nation's coastal zone for the presejnt and succeeding generation.
national coastal zone management act of 1972
applications of forestry practices to government owned forests in the us
forest reserves maangement act of 1974
requires federal agencies to develop resource management plans on lands affected by their actions
forest and rangeland renewable resources act of 1974
gave the bureau of land management its first real authority to manage the public land under its control
federal land policy and management act of 1976
it allowed clear cutting if it was judged necessary by the forest service. the service was to move away from timber management of marginal lands, but it was to determine what fell under that category. in addition: trees could be cut down in old age, bu t
national forest management act of 1976
it created the soil and water conservation program within the dept of natural resources to promite soil and water conservation by preventing erosion
soil and water conservation act of 1977
this act required reclamation standards, performance bonds, and mandatory restoration progress on coal lands abandoned prior to August 3, 1977. the act also set forth fees to be paid on all active mining operations
surface mining control and reclamation act of 1977
this act makes it unlawful, unless authorized by permit: to take native mammals or birds, to engage in harmful interference, to enter specially designated areas, to introduce species to antarctica, to introduce substances designated as pollutants, to dis
antarctic conservation act of 1978
this act generally prohibits commercial activities, motorized access, and infrastructure developments in congressionally designated areas
endangered american wilderness act of 1978
Provides for right of access to non federally owned land and to prserve scenic and geological values associated with natural landscapes. it also provided for the maintenance of the habitat and wildlife species that are valuable to the state of alaska and
alaskan national interest lands conervation act (alaska lands act) of 1980
this act designated various undeveloped coastal barrier islands, depicted by specific maps, for inclusion in the coastal barrier resources system (System). areas so designated were made ineligible for direct or indirect federal financial assistance that
coastal barrier resources act of 1982
allowed lower commodity price and income supports and established a dairy herd buyout program.
food security act of 1985.
coral reefs are formed by...
coral reefs are made from?
limestone, calcium carbonate
what gives polyps (and coral reefs!) their color?
bottom dwellers
examples of nekton
fish, turtles, whales
examples of benthos
barnacles, oysters, worms, lobsters, crabs
plant plankton is...
animal plankton are?
filter feeders include
barnacles, clams, oysters, sponges, baleen whales
endemic species are
specific to one habitat
layer where photosynthesis is carried out in the ocean
euphotic zone
coastal zone is from
shallow water from the high tide mark to the continental shelf
river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, mangroves, salt marshes are all
coastal wetlands
a temp increase of how muh can cause coral bleaching?
1 degree celsius
the mid section of the ocean
bathyal zone
bottom zone of ocean
these take mud into their guts and extract nutrients in the abyssal zone
deposit feeder (like worms)
lakes are caused by...
glaciation, crustal displacement, volcanic activity
shallow, highly productive zone in lakes
littoral zone
open, top zone in lakes
limnetic zone
deep open water in lakes
profundal zone
bottom zone of lakes
poorly nourished lakes
lakes with clear water, steep sides, and deep rocky bottoms
well nourished lake
lakes with shallow sides and muddy bottoms and muddy water
top layer of warm water in lakes
cold water layer in lakes
where lotic systems start. headwaters, waterfalls, and rapids
source zone
gentler, warmer lotic waters
transition zones
broad, wide rivers. very warm, less oxygen
floodplain zone
interxn between two species where both species benefit
three factors affeting species diversity
latitude in terrestrial zommunities, depth in aquatic systems, polltn in aquatic systems
in terrestrial biomes, does species diversity go up with elevation
intraspecific competition
between members of same species
interspecific competition
between diff species
one species limits another's access to a resouce regardless of the abundance of that resource
interference competition
competing species have same access to a resource, but differ in how fast/ efficiently they exploit it
exploitation competition
two species requiring same resource can't coexist indefinitely in a system without enough of the resource to meet needs of both species
competitive exclusion principle
divide scarce resources so species with similar needs use them at different times, in different ways, or in different places
resource partitioning
species develop phusical, behavioral adaptations that allow them to use different resources
character displacement
cataceans include
whales!!! marine mammals!
toothed whales
porpoise, sperm whales, killer whales
baleen whales
blue, gray, humpback, finback
warm fronts lead to
cold fronts lead to
succulent plants are common in
desert biomes
broadleaf evergreen plants are common in
wet, tropical reain forsts
broadleaf deciduous plants
oaks and maples. shed leaves and are dormant in the winter
coniferous evergreen plants
common way up norht. keep needles all year.
three types of deserts
tropical deserts, temperate deserts, cold deserts
area between desert and grasslands
these cause what to persist? seawsonal drought, grazing by large herbivoers, periodic trees
kinds of grasslands
tropical grasslands (savanna), temperate grasslands (tall grass and short grass prairies), polar grasslands (arctic trundra)
perenially frozen layer of soil formed when h20 freezes there
this is above the limit of tree growth and below the permanent snowline on high mtnsmore sunlight than artic tundra and no permafrost
alpine tundra
coastal areas with med climates
temperate shurbland (chaparral)
types of forest
tropical rainforst, tropical deciduous forests (tropical monsson/ seasonal forests)l, temperate deciduous forests, evergreen coniferous forest (boreal forests, taiga), temperate rainforests (coastal coniferous forests)
population viability assessment
risk assment predicting the probability of a popltn persisting a certain number of generation dbased on the current popltn size and habitat condition
minimum dynamic area
takes into account home range size, colonies of endangered species, availability of nearby popltns
limited diversity of individuals founding a popltn not large enough to sustain the popltn
founder effect
only a few individuals survive to perpetuate a popltn after a disaster
demographic bottleneck
unequal reproductive success. some genes dominate
genetic drift
most reintroductions fail because of
lack of suitable habitat, inability of individuals bred in captivity to survive in the wild, renewed overhunting/ capture of returned species
primary things determining an area's climate
average temperature and average precipitation
leeward side of mountain gets less precipitation
rain shadow effect
what determines earth's average temp?
thermal cap
example of a tropical desert
example of a temperate desert
example of a cold desert
gobi desert
here, temps are high year round and there are few plants. hard, windblown surfaces with rocks and sand
tropical desert
daytime temps are high in the summer, low in the winter.
temperate desert
perennial shrubs in deserts have what adaptation?
grow deep roots to tap groundwater. drop leaves in dry weather
these have crazy efficient kidneys and live in the desert
kangaroo rats!!
regions with enough annual precip to allow grass and sometimes trees to propser but with erratic precip. found on the interiors of continents.
areas with high average temp, low to moderate precip and a prolonged dry season. wide belt on either side of the equator beyond the borders of tropical rain forests
tropical grasslands
vast plains and gently rolling hills in interior north and south american, europe, and asia. they lack trees and have seasonal extremes of hot and cold rather than wt and dry.
temperate grasslands
in s america, temperate grasslands are called...
in africa, temperate grasslands are called
in central europe and asia, temperate grasslands are called
these cover 10% of the earth's land surface. occur just south of the arctic polar ice cap.
polar grasslands
undisturbed area with moderate-high average annual precipitation. various species of trees and smaller vegitation
warm annual mean temp, high humidity, daily heavy rainfall. biodiversity is based on a need for sunlight
tropical rainforest
these are climbing vines that root in the soil and have leaves in the canopy
these attach to trunks and branches of canopy trees and obtain nutrients from bits of organic matter falling from canopy
these are warm year round with monssons and dry seasons.
tropical decidusous forests
tropical monsson and tropical seasonal forests are
tropical deciduous forests
moderate precip, long warm summer, cold but not severe winter, abundant and even precip
temperate, deciduous forests
just south of the arctic tundra in north america, asia, europe. winters are long, cold, dry, with little sunlight. summers are short with mild temps anda long day.
evergreen coniferous forest
soil in thin, nutrient poor, acidic, and prevents most plants from growing
evergreen coniferous forest
in the summer, the soil makes acidic bogs called muskegs
evergreen coniferous forest
boreal forests and taigas are
evergreen coniferous forest
scattered coastal temperate areas with much rainfall and dense fogs
temperate rainforests
temperate rainforests are
coastal coniferous forests

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