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Western Civilization - Chapters 16 & 17


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Henry IV
King of England (1399–1413), first of three 15th-century monarchs of the house of Lancaster.
also called (1377–97) earl of Derby or (1397–99) duke of Hereford , byname Henry Bolingbroke or Henry of Lancaster king of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the house of Lancaster. He gained the crown by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. However, he was unable to overcome the fiscal and administrative weaknesses…
Louis XIII
king of France from 1610 to 1643, who cooperated closely with his chief minister, the Cardinal de Richelieu, to make France a leading European power.
Cardinal Richelieu
chief minister to King Louis XIII of France from 1624 to 1642. His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe.
Cardinal Mazarin
first minister of France after Cardinal de Richelieu's death in 1642. During the early years of King Louis XIV, he completed Richelieu's work of establishing France's supremacy among the European powers and crippling the opposition to the power of the monarchy at home.
Louis XIV
Louis The Great, Louis The Grand Monarch , or The Sun King , French Louis Le Grand, Louis Le Grand Monarque , or Le Roi Soleil king of France (1643–1715) who ruled his country, principally from his great palace at Versailles, during one of its most brilliant periods and who remains the symbol of absolute monarchy of the classical age. Internationally, in a series of wars between 1667 and 1697, he extended France's eastern borders at the expense of the Habsburgs…
Jean Baptiste Colbert
controller general of finance (from 1665) and secretary of state for the navy (from 1668) under King Louis XIV of France. He carried out the program of economic reconstruction that helped make France the dominant power in Europe.
Jean Baptiste Pouqulin (Moliere)
original name Jean-Baptiste Poquelin French actor and playwright, the greatest of all writers of French comedy
Jean Racine
in full Jean-baptiste Racine French dramatic poet and historiographer renowned for his mastery of French classical tragedy. His reputation rests on the plays he wrote between 1664 and 1677, notably Andromaque (1667), Britannicus (1669), Bérénice (1670), Bajazet (1672), and Phèdre (1677).
Marquis de Louvois
secretary of state for war under Louis XIV of France and his most influential minister in the period 1677–91. He contributed to the reorganization of the French army.
Jean Martinet
Jean Martinet (d. 1672), who as lieutenant-colonel of the Kings regiment of foot and inspector-general of infantry drilled and trained that arm in the model regular army created by Louis and Louvois between 1660 and 1670. Martinet seems also to have introduced the copper pontoons with.which Louis bridged the Rhine in 1672. He was killed, as a marchal de camp, at the siege of Duisburg in the same year, being accidentally shot by his own artillery while leading the infantry assault. His death, and that of the Swiss captain Soury by the same discharge gave rise to a bon mot, typical of the polite ingratitude of the age, that Duisburg had only cost the king a martin and a mouse. The martin as a matter of fact shares with Vauban and other professional soldiers of Louis XIV. the glory of having made the French army the first and best regular army in Europe. Great nobles, such as Turenne, Cond and Luxemburg, led this army and inspired it, but their fame has obscured that of the men who made it manageable and efficient. It was about this time that the soldier of fortune, who joined a regiment with his own arms and equipment and had learned his trade by varied experience, began to give place to the soldier regularly enlisted as a recruit in permanent regiments and trained by his own officers. The consequence of this was the introduction of a uniform, or nearly uniform system of drill and training, which in all essentials has endured to the present day. Thus Martinet was the forerunner of Leopold of Dessau and Frederick William, just as Jean Jacques de Fourilles, the organizer of the cavalry, who was forced into an untimely charge at Seneffe (1674) by a brutal taunt of Cond, and there met his death, was the forerunner of Zieten and Seydlitz. These men, while differing from the creators of the Prussian army in that they contributed nothing to the tactics of their arms, at least made tactics possible by the thorough drilling and organization they imparted to the formerly heterogeneous and hardly coherent elements of an army.
also spelled Hapsburg , also called House of Austria royal German family, one of the principal sovereign dynasties of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century.
Elizabeth I
byname The Virgin Queen, or Good Queen Bess queen of England (1558–1603) during a period, often called the Elizabethan Age, when England asserted itself vigorously as a major European power in politics, commerce, and the arts.
James I (VI)
king of Scotland (as James VI) from 1567 to 1625 and first Stuart king of England from 1603 to 1625, who styled himself “king of Great Britain.” James was a strong advocate of royal absolutism, and his conflicts with an increasingly self-assertive Parliament set the stage for the rebellion against his successor, Charles…
Charles I
king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625–49), whose authoritarian rule and quarrels with Parliament provoked a civil war that led to his execution.
William Laud
archbishop of Canterbury (1633–45) and religious adviser to King Charles I of Great Britain. His persecution of Puritans and other religious dissidents resulted in his trial and execution by the House of Commons.
Thomas Hobbes/ Leviathan
English philosopher and political theorist, best known for his publications on individual security and the social contract, which are important statements of both the nascent ideas of liberalism and the long-standing assumptions of political absolutism characteristic of the times.

Hobbes's masterpiece, however, was the Leviathan, or the Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651). In the first two parts, “Of Man” and “Of Commonwealth,” he reworked the ground already covered in the earlier treatises; in the last two, “Of a Christian Commonwealth” and “Of the Kingdom of Darkness,” he embarked upon a discussion of Scripture and made a vigorous…
Oliver Cromwell
English soldier and statesman who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars; he was lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth.
Charles II
byname Charles The Mad, Spanish Carlos El Hechizado king of Spain from 1665 to 1700 and the last monarch of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
James II
king of Scots from 1437 to 1460. He survived the civil strife of the first half of his reign and eventually emerged as a masterful ruler who consolidated his power throughout the kingdom.
William III/Mary II
byname William Of Orange, also called William Henry, Prince Of Orange, Dutch Willem Hendrik, Prins Van Oranje stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands as William III (1672–1702) and king of Great Britain (1689–1702), reigning jointly with Queen Mary II (until her death in 1694). He directed the European opposition to Louis XIV of France and, in Great Britain, secured the triumph of Protestantism and of Parliament.

queen of England (1689–94) and wife of King William III. As the daughter of King James II, she made it possible for her Dutch husband to become co-ruler of England after he had overthrown James's government.
John Locke
English philosopher who was an initiator of the Enlightenment in England and France, an inspirer of the U.S. Constitution, and the author of, among other works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, his account of human knowledge, including the “new science” of his day—i.e., modern science.
Robert Walpole
also called (1725–42) Sir Robert Walpole British statesman (in power 1721–42), generally regarded as the first British prime minister. He deliberately cultivated a frank, hearty manner, but his political subtlety has scarcely been equaled.
George I
in full George Louis, German Georg Ludwig elector of Hanover (1698–1727) and first Hanoverian king of Great Britain (1714–27).
George II
in full George Augustus, German Georg August, also called (1706–27) marquess and duke of Cambridge king of Great Britain and elector of Hanover from 1727 to 1760. Although he possessed sound political judgment, his lack of self-confidence caused him to rely heavily on his ministers, most notable of whom was Sir Robert Walpole
Charles VI
Holy Roman emperor from 1711 and, as Charles III, archduke of Austria and king of Hungary. As pretender to the throne of Spain (as Charles III), he attempted unsuccessfully to reestablish the global empire of his 16th-century ancestor Charles V. He was the author of the Pragmatic Sanction, intended to enable his daughter Maria Theresa to succeedÂ…
The Great Elector
The Great Elector bequeathed to his son Frederick (after 1701, Frederick I, king of Prussia) a well-organized state, widely respected for its sound finances and efficient army. Frederick William had gone far toward integrating his inherited and acquired territories by establishing national institutions and central administrative bodies. He did, however, endangerÂ…
Frederick I
German Friedrich In 1688 he succeeded his father, Frederick William, as elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick III). In European politics, Frederick allied himself with Austria, England, and Holland against France. Prussia's contingents in the imperial army distinguished themselves in the wars of the Grand Alliance and in the War of the Spanish Succession. Austria and Prussia signed a secret treaty that permitted Frederick to crown himself king of Prussia, which was obliged to support Austria militarily and in imperial affairs. As a monarchy, Prussia's diverse Hohenzollern lands were turned into provinces, and Frederick freed the new kingdom from imperial control and increased its revenues.
Frederick William I
second Prussian king who transformed his country from a second-rate power into the efficient and prosperous state that his son and successor, Frederick II the Great, made a major military power on the Continent.

The son of the elector Frederick III, later Frederick I, king of Prussia, Frederick William grew up at a glamorous court, Â…
Ivan III
Russian in full Ivan Vasilyevich, byname Ivan The Great, Russian Ivan Veliky grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative foundations of a centralized Russian…
Ivan IV
Russian in full Ivan Vasilyevich , byname Ivan The Terrible , Russian Ivan Grozny grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and largely unsuccessful wars against Sweden and Poland, …
Patriarch Nikon
Leader of the Russian Orthodox church.

orig. Nikita Minin Born a peasant, he rose through the ranks of the priesthood to become patriarch of Moscow and all Russia in 1652. Granted sovereign power during the absence of Tsar Alexis on military campaigns, he purged Russian religious books and practices of what he considered corruptions, and he exiled his opponents. His reforms troubled many believers and led to a schism in the church (see Old Believers) as well as to widespread disaffection (see Doukhobors), and his high-handedness alienated Alexis. In 1666 a council of Greek patriarchs convened by Alexis stripped Nikon of all priestly functions but retained his reforms.
Stenka Razin
byname of Stepan Timofeyevich Razin leader of a major Cossack and peasant rebellion on Russia's southeastern frontier (1670–71).

Born into a well-to-do Don Cossack family, Stenka Razin grew up amid the tension caused by the inability of runaway serfs, who were continually escaping from Poland and Russia to the Don Cossack area, to find land and comfortablyÂ…
Peter the Great
Tsar of Russia (1682–1725).
Russian Pyotr Alekseyevich known as Peter the Great Son of Tsar Alexis, he reigned jointly with his half brother Ivan V (1682–96) and alone from 1696. Interested in progressive influences from western Europe, he visited several countries there (1697–98). After returning to Russia, he introduced Western technology, modernized the government and military system, and transferred the capital to the new city of St. Petersburg (1703). He further increased the power of the monarchy at the expense of the nobles and the Orthodox church. Some of his reforms were implemented brutally, with considerable loss of life. Suspecting that his son Alexis was conspiring against him, he had Alexis tortured to death in 1718. He pursued foreign policies to give Russia access to the Baltic and Black seas, engaging in war with the Ottoman Empire (1695–96) and with Sweden in the Second Northern War (1700–21). His campaign against Persia (1722–23) secured for Russia the southern and western shores of the Caspian Sea. In 1721 he was proclaimed emperor; his wife succeeded him as the empress Catherine I. For raising Russia to a recognized place among the great European powers, Peter is widely considered one of the outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history, but he has also been decried by nationalists for discarding much of what was unique in Russian culture, and his legacy has been seen as a model for Joseph Stalin's brutal transformation of Russian life.

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