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Bio 201 Exam 2


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The shaft of a long bone
A part or process of a bone that ossifies separately and later becomes ankylosed to the main part of the bone ; especially : an end of a long bone.

The marrow cavity of a bone
Medullary Cavity
The layer of vascular connective tissue lining the medullary cavities of bone

Pronunciation: en-däs-t-m
The membrane of connective tissue that closely invests all bones except at the articular surfaces
This bone is designed to nourish and regulate osteocytes and bone matrix
Compact Bone
In anatomy, one of the two layers of compact bone that make up the interior and exterior walls of the _______. They are the plates of the _____and are separated from each other by the _______which is a soft spongy material containing _____ ______.
In anatomy, one of the two layers of compact bone that make up the interior and exterior walls of the cranium. They are the plates of the skull and are separated from each other by the diploe which is a soft spongy material containing bone marrow.
The soft spongy material containing bone marrow
A haversian canal with the concentrically arranged laminae of bone that surround it -- called also ________
Any of the small canals through which the blood vessels ramify* in bone.

*To send out branches or subordinate branchlike parts.
Haversian Canal
One of the bony concentric layers surrounding the haversian canals in bone.
A sheet like membrane found within a chloroplast of an autotrophic cell.
Lamella (Lamellae pl)
A cavity, space, or depression, especially in a bone, containing cartilage or bone cells.
A small canal or duct in the body, such as the minute channels in compact bone.
Bone forming cells that arise from osteogenic cells, deposit mone matrix and eventually become osteocytes.
A cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance.
Any of the large multinucleate* cells cloely associated with areas of bone resorption (as in a fracture that is healing)

*Having two or more nuclei
The osteoclast is usually found in depressions called _________ _______ at the surfaces of bony tissue and is associated with bone resorption; it is a large multi-nucleated cell derived from blood monocytes
Hawship's Capsule
A complex phosphate of calcium that occures as a mineral and is the chief structural element of vertebrate bone.
Any of the intersecting osseous bars occurring in cancellous bone
one of a pair of longitudinally directed more or less curved Cartilaginous rods in the developing skull of a vertebrate that develop under the anterior part of the brain on each side of the pituitary gland and subsequently fuse with each other and with t
A cartilage cell
Any of several sulfated forms of chondroitin found in various tissues (as cartilage, adult bone, and tendons)
Chondroitin Sulfate
Growing from or on the inside
Growing from or on the outside
A membrane-covered opening in bone or between bones.
The line marking the epiphyseal plate.
Epiphyseal line
The first change indicative of beginning ossification takes place about the center of the future bone shaft. Here the cartilage cells hypertrophy and the cartilage matrix becomes calcified. Subsequently, part of the calcified matrix disintegrates, openin
Primary ossification center
This is typical hyaline cartilage and is a large zone in this preparation.
Zone of reserve cartilage
The cartilage cells are small and tend to be arranged in columns, which run parallel to the long axis of the cartilage. This arrangement is indicative of their intense mitotic activity
Zone of proliferation
Chondrocytes and lacunae are larger than in the previous zone. The chondrocytes increase in size and resorb some their lacunar walls, enlarging them to such an extent that some of the lacunae become confluent.
Zone of cell and lacunar maturation and hypertrophy enlargement
This is a small zone having a slightly darker appearance than the preceding zone due to the basophilic staining of the calcified cartilage. The chondrocytes die in this zone.
Zone of calcification
Osseous elements are present among the pieces of calcified cartilage
Zone of cartilage removal and bone deposition
About the time of birth, a ________ ___________ center appears in each end (epiphysis) of long bones. Periosteal buds carry mesenchyme and blood vessels in and the process is similar to that occurring in a primary ossification center.
Secondary ossification center
The point of union of the primary and secondary ossification centers is called the ___________ _____.
Epiphyseal line
The cartilage between the primary and secondary ossification canters is called the _________ ________, and it continues to form new cartilage, which is replaced by bone, a process that results in an increase in length of the bone
Epiphyseal plate
The ______ _____ forms concurrently with the primary ossification center. Cells of the perichondrium begin to form bone. The _____ ____holds together the shaft, which has been weakened by the disintegration of the cartilage. The connective tissue about t
Bone collar
any of various natural steroids (as estradiol) that are formed from androgen precursors, that are secreted chiefly by the ovaries, placenta, adipose tissue, and testes, and that stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics and promot
These are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. Testosterone is the best known natural anabolic steroid, as well as the best kno
Anabolic steroids
The presence of excess parathyroid hormone in the body resulting in disturbance of calcium metabolism with increase in serum calcium and decrease in inorganic phosphorus, loss of calcium from bone, and renal damage with frequent kidney-stone formation
Deficiency of parathyroid hormone in the body ; also : the resultant abnormal state marked by low serum calcium and a tendency to chronic tetany
A condition that affects especially older women and is characterized by decrease in bone mass with decreased density and enlargement of bone spaces producing porosity and brittleness
a male hormone that is a crystalline hydroxy steroid ketone produced primarily by the testes or made synthetically and that is the main androgen responsible for inducing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics
Parathyroid Hormone
Hormone Replacement Therapy
A drug that is used for osteoporosis after menopause, that acts on estrogen receptors promoting bone mineralization and lipid metabolism, and that is believed to spare breast and uterine tissues the cancer-producing effects of estrogen since it acts as a
scientific names for active vitamin D.
electrical current will stimulate osteoblast activity
Piezoelectric Effect
Requirements for Bone Growth:
Salts, Vitamines, and hormones.
Name the 5 vitamines necessary for bone growth.
A, K, B12, C and D
The flat bones of the ____ form as intramembranous bones that develop from layers of connective tissue.
Most of the bones of the skeleton fall into this category.
They first develop as hyaline cartilage models and are then replaced with bone.
Endochondral ossification

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