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Gov't Chapter 1-5


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Max Weber's definition of GOVERNMENT
Social institution about the people
Different Types
Definition: abilities of persons to influence the behavior of others by persuasion, rewards, or force

Different Types:
- Military
- Political
- Economics
- Psychological
Elite Theory vs. Pluralist Theory
- 2 classes of people: Elites (those who rule), Masses (those who follow)
- Elites not typical of Masses, bias, most political knowledge

-Interest groups are the decision makers
- All groups are equal, people have a say in policy making
Laswell's definition of POLITICS
A struggle over who gets what, when, and how.
- Ultimate democracy is ruled by the people.
- People (Masses) are the decision makers
"Both Elite and Pluralist are wrong"
Assumption: people don't participate
A form of government that is ruled by the people. Greek for Demos Kraetin.
A form of government that is run by the few rich.

Example: North Africa
John Locke
- British Philosopher
- Social contract theory: people give consent for a government govern them, but government must protect them.
- 3 things people should have:
* right of life
A form of government that is run by one person.

Example: Saddam Hussein
A form of government that a group of people make all economic, social, and political decisions.

Example: China
Politcal Culture
- deep seeded belief and characteristics of a particular people

Core Ideals:
- Individualism: belive whatever
- Liberty: freedom
- Diversity: different culutures
- Unity: all Americans
- Self-government: by the people
- Equality: everyone equal
Adam Smith
- Father of Capitalism
- Wealth of Nations
- Lassiez-Fare: hands off, only help when economy hurts the people
John Stuart Mill
- Freedom of thoughts/discussion
- All ideas are welcome: clash of ideas

ideas > Democracy > Tolerant people
Democratic Principles
- Individual Freedom
- Equality in voting
- Majority rules/Minority has rights
- People give consent to be governored
- Equal protection under the law
Definition of GOVERNMENT
- about institutions, processes, and rules that are designed to maintain control over a particular group of people

- about people coming to agreeable ways of living together
- law of the land

- Declaration of Independence: document that listed grievances
- Articles of Confederation: voting, no defense system
- Constitution
Strengths and Weaknesses of Consititution
- works for 230 yrs
- progressive (argues for election)
- short (only 27 amendments)
- vague (interpretations)
- limits and give powers
- allows expiermentation

- unelected supreme court, 9 judges
- no racial input when writing document, all white males
- Electoral college system
Checks and Balances
- All branches check each other relating to powers
Separation of Powers
- All branches are divided, no one branch dominates
- Clear division of power

Concurrent Powers
National Powers
State Powers
Declaration of Independence
Ben Franklin
Roger Sherman
Thomas Jefferson
Phillip Livington


- All drafted a document listing grievances against King George III
- This is the beginning of independence from England
Articles of Confederation
Ben Franklin
Roger Sherman
Thomas Jeffereson
Phillip Livington


- 2nd Continental Congress
- Gave information of 1 vote for each state
- 13/13 to pass anything
- States can decide what happens
New Jersey Plan
- A plan that was mentioned in the revision of the Articles
- 1 vote per state
- Keep Articles
Virgina Plan
- A plan mentioned in the revision of the Articles
- Bicameral House: upper (senate) and lower (representatives)
- Equal representation
The Great Compromise
- Virginia Plan
- 2 Senator per state
- 435 representatives based on population
Three-fifths Compromise
- A compromise in the revision of the Articles
- A slave is allowed to vote, but only as 3/5 of a person
Commercial Compromise
- A compromise in the revision of the Articles
- Federal government taxes for sure, state government can decide if they want to tax
Bill of Rights
- 1st ten Amendments are the Bill of Rights
Shay's Rebellion

Daniel Shays- former army captian is American Revolution

Organizes 2000 people army

Overtake Mass. government because government took the armies land for not paying taxes after an agreement of deferment

Articles need help
- To change
- 38/50 votes are needed to amend the constitution
Ratification of the Constitution
- To be approved
- 9/13 states had to say yes to be ratified

Key States in the Ratification:
- North Carolina
- Rhode Island
Full Faith & Credit Clause
- Article IV, Section 1-2
- each state must recognize public records of other states

Example: Married in one state, means you're married in another
- A concept that exist in the consititution, division and/or separation and/or shared powers that exist between the Federal gov't and the states

Concurrent Powers- Transportation
National Powers- Defense/Currency
State Powers- Education/Public Safety
Trends in Federalism
- Times in our history depending on whose in office, political state, social state, and economic state dictate trends
- Mostly result of policy

Dual Federalism
Cooperative Federalism (GD)
Centralized Federalism (50s-60s)
New Federalism (Nixon, 70s-90s)
Coercive Federalism (Clinton)
Supremacy Clause
- Article VI
- Federal law always prevails when federal and state laws conflict
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Judical Review
Supreme court has the ability to strike down anything that is unconstituional
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) - Necessary and Proper Clause
- Article I, Section 8
- 17 job responsibilites
- If something arises, Congress has the authority to do it because of McCulloch v. Maryland
Bill of Attainder
-Article I, Section 9
- Government can never punish you without a trial, most have process
- Show cause as to why you're being held
Privileges & Immunities
- Article IV, Section 2
- Privileges and immunities go anywhere between states
Reserved Powers Clause
- Amendment X
- State do have authority
Federalists v. Anti-federalists
ensure state power

strong federal government
- States are give a lot of authority
- Sometimes called New Federalism
Concurrent Powers
- Federal and State governments work together

Examples: Taxation, Law Enforcement
National Powers
Federal government powers only

Examples: National defense, Post offices
State Powers
All 50 states only have these powers

Examples: Education, Public safety
Civil Rights
- Individual right sto have equal protection under the law and to societies, facilities, and oppurtunity
- 14th Amendment
Civil Liberties
-Specific individual rights which are constitutionally protected against inflingment by the government
1833 Barron v. Baltimore
- Established dual citizenship
- Dual citizenship: follow U.S. laws and the laws of tour own state
1896 Plessy v. Ferguson
- Separate but equal doctrine
* white society
* black society
- Created segregation
1954 Brown v. Board of Education
- Supreme court case that dealth with segregation
- Separate but equal was "wrong"
- Turns over Plessy v. Ferguson
- Sparked civil rights movement
13th Amendment (1865)
14th Amendment (1868)
15th Amendment (1870)
13th: abolished slavery
14th: equal protection under the law
15th: blacks can vote
Jim Crow Laws
- Discrimitory segregation got away with it because of Barron v. Balitmore

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