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Army Board Questions: First Aid


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What Army manual covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
What is first aid?
It's the first care given to injured soldiers before medical personnel are available.
What are the four life-saving steps of first aid?
1.Clear the airway and restore breathing.
2.Stop the bleeding.
3.Treat and dress the wounds to prevent infection.
4.Prevent Shock.
What are the three types of bleeding and how are they recognized?
Arterial: Blood is bright red and spurts with the heartbeat.

Venous: Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream.

Capillary: Blood oozes from the wound.
How do you stop bleeding?
1.Apply a field dressing.
2.Apply manual pressure.
3.Elevate the injured limb.
4.Apply a pressure dressing.
5.Apply a tourniquet.
Whose first aid dressing should be used on the casualty?
Use the casualty's bandage.
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed to stop the bleeding, or when an arm or leg has been cut off.
What are the four types of burns?
What is the single most common cause of airway blockage?
The tongue
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Around a limb, between the injury and the heart, two to four inches above the wound. And, never place a tourniquet directly on a joint.
How tight should a tourniquet be?
Until bright red bleeding has stopped.
What must be done to indicate a casualty has a tourniquet?
Mark the casualty's forehead with a "T" and note the time of application.
When should you loosen or remove a tourniquet?
Define manual pressure
Firm pressure on the dressing for five to 10 minutes.
What is HIV?
Human Immunovirus
What should be applied if bleeding continues after applying a field dressing?
Apply a pressure dressing after manual pressure and elevation of the injury.
What are the two types of artificial respiration?
The mouth-to-mouth method, and the back pressure-arm lift method.
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
Casualties should not eat or drink.
What are the signs of shock?
Clammy skin
Nausea or vomiting
Restlessness or nervousness
Loss of blood
fast breathing
fainting spells
excessive perspiration
blotched or bluish skin(especially around mouth)
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When there is a head injury, abdominal wound or unsplinted fractured leg(s).
What is the treatment for shock?
Move to cover if possible. Lay the casualty on their back; elevate the legs; loosen clothing at the neck, waist, ankles and feet; prevent chilling or overheating; keep the casualty calm.
What is the measure for checking the tightness of bandages?
Two fingers should slip under the bandage.
What items should never be used as a tourniquet?
Wire or string.
What procedure is used to restore heartbeat?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR).
When it becomes necessary to give CPR what is the ratio of pumps to breaths for a one-man rescue and a two-man rescue?
One man - 15 pumps/2 breaths
Two man - 5 pumps/1 breath
When may resuscitation measures be stopped?
1.When a doctor tells you to stop.
2.When you are relieved by others.
3.When you can't physically continue.
4.When the casualty starts breathing on their own.
What is the correct method of artificial respiration during an NBC attack, and why?
The back pressure-arm lift method because during an NBC attack both of you will be masked.
When is a casualty's clothing not removed in order to expose a wound?
When the clothing is stuck to the wound, or in an NBC environment.
What is unique about type "O" blood?
It can be used by anybody.
Why should wounds be treated as soon as possible?
To control the bleeding, and to protect the wound from contamination by germs.
What is a heat injury?
General dehydration of the body brought on by loss of water and salt through activity in the heat.
What are the three categories of heat injuries?
Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Describe the signs of heat cramps.
Muscle cramps of the legs, arms or abdomen, excessive sweating.
Describe the treatment for heat cramps.
Move the casualty into shade, loosen clothing and give cool water.
Name the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion.
Clammy skin
Muscle cramps
excessive sweating
urge to defecate
rapid breathing
tingling hands or feet
How should heat exhaustion be treated?
Move the casualty to a cool, shaded area, loosen any tight fitting clothing, have him or her drink a canteen of cool water, elevate the legs and monitor.
Describe the signs and symptons of heat stroke.
The person stops sweating
Dry and hot skin
fast pulse
nausea or vomiting
How should heat stroke be treated?
Immerse the casualty in the coldest water available or remove the clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport to the nearest medical facility.
What are the two most common types of fractures?
Open(compound), and closed(simple).
What is an open fracture?
A broken bone that breaks through the skin.
What should be done first for an open fracture?
Stop the bleeding.
What are the signs and symptoms or fractures?
Pain at the site, discoloration and deformity.
Why is a fracture immobilized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from moving and cutting tissue, muscle, blood vessels and nerves. Doing this reduces pain and helps prevent and control shock.
What is shock and why is it dangerous
Shock is inadequate blood flow to the vital organs and tissues. If shock is uncorrected it may result in death even though the injury or conditions causing shock appear to be less than fatal.
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
Splint them where they lie.
What does the key word "COLD" mean in cold weather protection?
Keeping it CLEAN
Wearing LOOSE clothing in layers
Keeping it DRY
Name five types of cold and wet weather injuries.
Frostbite: Actual freezing of a part of the body.

Hypothermia: Lowering of the body temperature.

Immersion/Trench Foot: Occurs between 32 and 50 degrees.

Chilblain: mild form of frostbite
Snow blindness:pain in and around the eyes.
Describe the signs and symptoms of frostbite.
Loss of sensation or numb feeling in any part of the body.

Sudden whitening of the skin in the affected area, followed by a momentary tingling feeling.

Redness of skin in light-skinned soldiers; grayish coloring in dark-skinned soldiers.


Swollen and/or tender areas.

Loss of previous feeling of pain in the affected area.

Pale, yellowish, waxy-looking skin.

Frozen area that feels solid or wooden to the touch.
What is the treatment for frostbite?
Warm the area at the first sign of frostbite with the casualty's or a buddy's hands, underarm or abdomen.

Face, ears or nose: Cover the area with the casualty's or buddy's hands.

Hands: Place them inside his or her clothing against the body and close the clothing.

Feet: Place the casualty's bare feet under the clothing and against the body of another soldier.

Loosen or remove tight clothing and any jewelry.

Cover the casualty with a blanket or other dry material.
What precautions should be followed with frostbite?
Don't soak the frostbitten part.

Don't rub it with snow.

Don't expose it to any extreme heat source.

Don't rub or more the frostbitten part in any way to increase circulation.

Don't allow the casualty to smoke or drink alcohol.

Do not treat seriously frostbitten parts if the casualty must walk or travel to receive further treatment.
What is hypothermia?
The body loses heat faster than it can produce.
What are the two types of hypothermia?
Mild and severe.
Describe the symptoms of hypothermia.
Casualty is cold. Shivering stops, but the body temperature is low. Consciousness may be altered. Movement is uncoordinated. Shock and coma may set in as a result of lower body temperatures.
What is the treatment for hypothermia?
Immediately rewarm the body evenly with a heat source.

Keep the casualty dry, and protect from the elements.

Warm liquids may gradually be given to the casualty providing he or she is conscious.

Be prepared to start basic life support measures for the casualty.

Seek medical help immediately. Hypothermia is a medical emergency and must be treated as soon as possible.
What are the signs and symptoms of immersion foot?
Affected parts are cold, numb and painless. Then, the parts may become hot, with burning and shooting pains. In the advanced stage skin is pale with a bluish tint, pulse decreases. Blistering, swelling, heat, hemorrhages and gangrene may follow
How is trench/immersion foot acquired?
It results from fairly long exposure of the feet to wet and cold(50-32 degrees F). Inactive feet in damp or wet socks and boots or tightly laced boots which impair circulation can also cause it.
How is trench/immersion foot treated?
Rewarm the injury gradually by exposing it to warm air.

Do not massage it.

Do not moisten the skin.

Do not apply heat or ice.

Protect the affected area from further trauma.

Keep the injury dry. Avoid walking.

Seek medical treatment.
What are the symptoms of chilblain?
The affected areas are red, swollen, hot, tender, and itchy. Continued exposure will lead to blisters or bleeding skin lesions.
Describe the treatment for chilblain.
The affected area usually responds to locally applied rewarming with body heat. Don't rub or massage the area.
What is snow blindness?
The effect that glare from an ice field or snowfield has on the eyes.
Will snow blindness occur only when the sun is shining?
No. It can happen in cloudy weather, also.
What are the symptoms of snow blindness?
A sensation of grit or sand in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes which feels worse when the eyeball moves. Other signs include watering, redness, headache, and pain on exposure to light.
How should snow blindness be treated?
Blindfolding or covering the eyes with dark cloth which stops eye movement. Rest, protect from further exposure to light. Seek medical care.
Is snow blindness permanent?
No. The condition usually heals in a few days without permanent damage.
What is the most common condition which requires first aid assistance?
The open wound.
How would you treat a sucking chest wound?
Cover the area with plastic to stop the flow of air. Bandage the wound and lay the casualty on the wound if possible, or have the person sit up.
How much water should be given to a person with an abdominal wound?
What is the best one man carry that can be used for transporting a casualty long distance?
The pistol belt carry
Describe the three degrees of burns
1st degree burn-reddening skin
2nd degree burn-blistering
3rd degree burn-charred flesh.First Aid
What is the most important thing to do in care of a serious burn?
Keep the burn clean and apply a dry sterile dressing.
If you found a casualty with a hole in his or her chest what would be the first thing to do?
Check the back for an exit wound.
What is an indication of a sucking chest wound?
Frothy fluid bursting with each breath.
Would you elevate a patient's legs if he had a head injury?
Should large amounts of water be given to a burn victim?
No. One quart per hour is sufficient.
What is self aid?
Emergency treatment applied by oneself.
What are the four life saving steps?
1.Clear the airway.
2.Stop the bleeding
3.Protect the wound.
4.Treat for shock.
What is the first aid for snake bites?
Do not attempt to cut open the bite or suck the venom out of the bite. If the venom should seep through any damaged or lacerated tissues in the mouth, you could immediately lose consciousness or even die.

Bite on arm or leg: place a constricting band one to two finger widths above and below the bite. Band should be tight but not cut off circulation. If there is swelling move the bands to the edges of the swelling.

Keep the injured area below the level of the heart.
Keep the casualty quiet, immobile if possible
If possible wash the area of the bite with soap and water. Do not use any ointments.
Never give the casualty food, alchohol, coffee, tea, drugs or tobacco.
Remove rings, watches, or other jewelery from the affected limb.
Identify the snake or kill it for identification
Seek medical attention.
What is the best position for a casualty with a stomach wound?
On his back with knees flexed.
What is the best first aid for bee stings?
1.Remove the stinger with knife or fingernail. Don't squeeze the venom sac on the stinger.
2.Wash the area
3.Apply ice or freeze pack, if available.
4.If symptoms of allergic reactions appear, be prepared to perform basic life saving measures and seek immediate medical aid.
When are snakes most active?
During the period from twilight to daylight.
Can all snakes swim?
All species of snakes can swim.
Should any medication or cream be put on a burn?
Should unbroken blisters be opened?
They should be protected and allowed to drain naturally unless it is in an area where friction is going to cause it to break open.
How should blisters be treated?
1.Cleanse the area with soap and water.
2.Sterilize a needle
3.Open blister by sticking it at the lower edge.
4.Drain the blister by pressing it and removing the fluid with a clean cloth or gauze.
5.Apply a bandage.
How are open blisters treated?
1.Cleanse the area with soap and water.
2.Apply a bandage
What is an STD?
Sexually Transmitted Disease.
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
What causes AIDS?
The HIV virus
Give two distinguishing characteristics of a non-poisonous snake.
Oval-shaped head and round pupils.
How can you identify a poisonous snake?
They have small deep pits between the nostrils and eyes on each side of the head.
Name the four poisonous snakes found in the U.S.
Rattlesnakes, copperheads, water moccasins, and coral snakes.
Give two examples of pit vipers.
Rattlesnakes, bushmasters, copperheads, fer-de-lance, malayan pit vipers and water moccasins
Identify the process of evaluating a casualty.
-"Are you okay?"
-Gently shake or tap on the shoulder
-Watch for response

2.Check for BREATHING
-Look for rise and fall in chest
-Listen for breathing
-Feel for breathing

3.Check for BLEEDING
-Look for blood
-Look for entry and exit wounds.

4.Check for SHOCK
-Clammy skin
-Pale skin
-Restlessness or nervousness
-Blood loss
-Fast breathing
-Blotchy or bluish skin around mouth
-Nausea and/or vomiting

5.Check for FRACTURES
a.look for back or neck injury
-Pain or tenderness in neck or back area
-Cuts or bruises in neck or back area
-Inability of casualty to move
-Unusual body or limb position
b.check for open fractures
-bleeding or bone sticking through skin
c.check for closed fractures
-unusual body position.

6.Check for BURNS
-reddened, blistered, charred skin
-singed clothing

7.Check for HEAD INJURY
-unequal pupils
-fluid from ears, nose, mouth, or injury site
-slurred speech
-Loss of memory or consciousness
-staggering in walking
-convulsions or twitches

8. Seek MEDICAL aid
-yell "MEDIC!"

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