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Abeka Biology - Chapter 1


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The study of life
Living things
regions where particular organisms normally live
the study of plants
the study of animals
Human antomy and physiology
The study of the physical structure and function of the human body
green plants
Animals which eat the plants
Parts of a plant
Flowers, leaves, stems, roots,
Woody plants
Plants that live many years to develop a large amount of wood
Herbaceous [hûr·ba’shus] plants or herbs
Nonwoody plants
A long thin stem that grows along the ground or has tendrils that twine around a support. can be either woody or herbaceous
Vegetative reproduction
Plant reproduction without seeds
Taproot system
Where the main or primary root grows straight down and remains larger than the secondary roots that branch off from it
Fibrous root system
Where the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots grow from it in all directions
Parts of a leaf
Green blade, stalk or petiole that attaches the blade to the plant stem, large vein or midrib that runs down the center of the blade
Three basic leaf shapes
Broad, flat leaves (rose bush, dandelion, or maple tree); long, narrow leaves (grasses, lilies, onions and palms); needlelike or scalelike leaves (pines, firs, cedars, and other cone-bearing trees and shrubs)
Flowering seed plants or Angiosperms
Plants whose flowers produce seeds that are covered by fruit
Annual plants
A plant which develops from a seed and produces new seeds in a single growing season
Biennial plants
Plants that take two years to complete their life cycles
Perennial plants
Plants that live from year to year and bloom each season
The nitrogen cycle
The movement of nitrogen from the air, into the soil, and back into the air
plants that have only one cotyledon, long and narrow leaves with a parallel vein pattern and a fibrous root system
Plants with two cotyledons per seed, flower parts arranged in groups of four or five, broad flat leaves with a branching vein pattern, and a taproot system
Graminoids [gram’i·noidz’]
Grasses and grasslike plants
A creeping stem that crows above the ground
Broadleaf trees
Trees that have broad flat leaves and almost always are flowering seed plants
Deciduous trees
Trees that lose their leaves during the fall and are bare all winter
Evergreen trees
Trees that retain their leaves all year long
The leaves of a tree form a ______

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