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Antidiabetic and Hypoglycemic Agents


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Diabetes mellitus
Complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism primarily resulting from the lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or from defects of the insulin receptors
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Diabetic coma
Gestational diabetes
A type of glucose intolerance that develops during pregnancy
Hormone produced by the alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans that stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver.
One of the simple sugars found in fruits that serve as a major source of energy.
A polysaccharide that is the major carbohydrate stored in animal cells.
Breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Greater than 120mg/dl of glucose in the blood
Less than 40mg/dl of glucose in the blood
Naturally occurring hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islands of Langerhans in response to increased levels of glucose in the blood
Organic chemical compound produced through the oxidation of secondary alcohols
Disorder of the kidney that includes inflammatory, degenerative, and sclerotic conditions
Inflammation or degeneration of the peripheral nerves
Chronic excessive intake of water
Excessive eating
Increased frequency of urinary output, a characteristic of diabetes
Noninflammatory eye disorder resulting from changes in the retinal blood vessels
Type I diabetes mellitus
An inability to metabolize carbohydrates caused by an overt insulin deficiency that occurs in children and adults
Type II diabetes mellitus
Type of diabetes in which patients are not insulin dependent but they may take insulin to correct the hyperglycemia
Common Adverse Effects of Insulin
CV - Tachycardia, palpitations
CNS - h/a, lethargy, tremors, weakness, fatigue, delirium, sweating
Metabolic - Hypoglycemia
Other - Blurred vision, dry mouth, hunger, nausea, flushing, rash, urticaria, anaphylaxis
Side effects to monitor for with Metformin
metallic taste, epigastric discomfort, weight loss, n/v/d
Which drugs affect the pancreas?
Insulin and oral hypoglycemics
What does insulin do with glucose?
It takes it from the blood and puts it in the liver to be stored.
What do oral hypoglycemics stimulate?
Insulin secretion from the beta cells of the pancreas as well as enhance insulin's effectiveness.
Second hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas
What does glucagon initiate?
Action of glycogenolysis?
Opposes the action of insulin (increasing the blood glucose level)
Storage form of glucose?
Where is glycogen stored?
In the liver
How is glycogen broken down?
By the synergistic actions of glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine
Insulin-dependent diabetes, Type I diabetes mellitus, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes.
Complications associated with Diabetes
Retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia?
Increased pulse rate, abnormal breathing, and a fruity, acetone odor to their breath.
Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?
Weakness, nervousness, cold and clammy skin, sweating, paleness of the skin, and shallow, rapid breathing. Notify physician if any of these symptoms occur.
Which insulin has the longest duration?
a. Regular
b. Lente
c. NPH
d. Ultra Lente
d. Ultra Lente
Which type of insulin can be given intravenously?
a. Regular
b. Lente
c. NPH
d. Ultra Lente
a. Regular
Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia?
a. Decreased pulse and respirations and flushed skin
b. Increased pulse rate and a fruity, acetone breath odor
c. Weakness, cold clammy skin, and shallow, rapid breathing
d. Increased uri
c. Weakness, cold clammy skin, and shallow, rapid breathing
When administering oral antidiabetic agents, which of the following is true?
a. Administer them 30 minutes before meals.
b. Administer them with meals.
c. Administer them on an empty stomach.
d. Administer them 1 hour after eating.
c. Administer them on an empty stomach.
Which statement describes the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone (Avandia)?
a. It stimulates beta cells to produce insulin.
b. It decreases insulin resistance.
c. It inhibits hepatic glucose production.
d. It increases the sensitivi
b. It decreases insulin resistance.

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