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introducing the human body


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Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts
Physiology is the study of the function of body parts
All mater consists of elements. These simple substances exist as particles called atoms
Atoms bond into molecules
Molecules compse the parts of the cell called organelles
The cell is the smallest unit displaying the properties of life
Similar cells function together in a tissue
Two or more tissue work together in an organ
Organ Systems
Organs with related functions are part of the same organ system
All organ systems make up the organism
Superior means closer to the head
Inferior means closer to the feet
Anterior/ Posterior
Anterior (ventral) refers to a part that is closer to the front of the body.
Posterior (dorsal) refers to a part that is closer to the back
Medial refers to a part that is closer to an imaginary midline passing vertically through the body.
Lateral refers to a part that is further from this midline.
Proximal refers to a part of a limb that is closer to the trunk (torso)of the body.
Distal refers to a limb part that is further from the trunk
Closer to the surface of the body
further away from the surface of the body
referring to the wall of a body cavity
Sagittal Plane
A sagittal plane passes through the body longitudinally, dividing it into left and right regions. A midsagittal section passes through the midline of the body.
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
A coronal plane passes through the body longitudially, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions.
Transverse Plane
A transverse plane passes through the body horizontally, dividing it into superior and inferior regions.
Two main cavities of the human body
dorsal cavity
ventral cavity
Dorsal cavity consists of
the dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Ventral cavity consists of
thoracis and abdominopelvic subcavities
Pleural cavity
contains the lungs
Integumentary System
The skin and accessory organs comprise the integumentary system protects and regulates body temperature
Skeletal System
The skeletal system consists of the bones and articulations (joints). This system provides protection and support
Muscular system
The skeletal muscles contract to produce body movements. The muscles also produce body heat
Nervous System
The nervous system sends signals throughout the body.
Endocrine System
The glands of the endocrine system secrete chemical messages called hormones. These messages regulate processes such as growth and mineral balance.
Circulatory System

(Circulatory was misspelled - typo) :)
The circulatory system transports substances to and from the body cells.
respiratory system
lungs and conducting tubes
digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and associated organs
urinary system
kidneys and bladder
circulatory system
heart and vessels
lymphatic system
lymphatic vesses and nodes, spleen and thymus
Reproduction and development in males
testes and glands ducts and penis
female reproductive system
ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina, and external genitalia
is the maintenance of relatively constant conditons of the internal environment of the body.
negative feedback
is a self-regulatory mechanism by which systems and conditions of the body are controlled.
Disease represents an upset in homeostasis

just another typo :o)
body levels of organization
organ systems, finally the organism

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