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Erikson's Eight Stages definitions


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Trust vs Mistrust

Define the process of what happens at this stage.
Happens between 0-1yr.
Developmental task: "Hope"
When they sense that a parent is consistent and dependable, they develop a sense of basic trust in the parent.
Trust is a sense that others are reliable and dependable.
Hope is the expectation that despite frustrations, rages, and disappointments, good things will happen in the future.
Explain Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
1-3 yrs
Developmental Task: "will"
If parents try to over-regulate the child's behavior; shame children excessively when they 'crap their pants; try to break their children of any oppositional behavior; ridicule their child's efforts to do things on their own.
Shame is the feeling that one does not look good in others' eyes.
What happens at the stage of "Initiative vs Guilt"
3-6 yrs
Developmental Task: "Purpose"
Initiative=forward movement.
Purpose=the courage to envision & pursue valued goals.
What happens at the stage of "Industry vs Inferiority"
6-11 yrs
Developmental Task: "Competence"
Can be affected by school performance.
A danger is an excessive feeling of inadequacy and inferiority.
The successful resolution of this stage leads to the ego strength of 'competence'
What happens at the developmental stage of "Identity vs Role Confusion"
Adolescence 12-18 yrs
Developmental Task: "Fidelity"
Instinctual drives contributes to the adolescent's identity problems.
Identity is a lifelong process but it reaches a crises during adolescence.

Identity foreclosure: A premature acceptance of compartmentalized social roles (based on outside expectations)

Psychosocial Moratorium: A sort of 'time-out' non-committal period for finding oneself.

The adolescent is preeminently self-centered.
What happens at the Intimacy vs Isolation stage
Young Adulthood 19-40
Developmental Task: "Love"

Real intimacy is only possible once a reasonable sense of identity has been established
What happens at the Generativity vs Self-Absorption,Stagnation stage
Middle Adulthood 40-65
Developmental Task: "Care"

Concerned with raising the next generation. Willingness to sacrifice their own needs.

Raising the next generation could be expressed by teaching, or working with other peoples children.
What happens at the stage of Ego Integrity vs Despair
Late Adulthood 65-death
Developmental task: Wisdom

Considered to be a life review period.

They wonder if they were worthwhile; if they chose the right path.

The feeling of despair can surface if they feel life is not what it should have been, time has run out and there is no chance to try an alternative lifestyle
How does Erikson's Stages compare with Piaget's?
Emotional development vs cognitive development
How does one progress through the stages?
Each person, if they live long enough, must go through all stages; though the particular stage does not have to be completely resolved before moving on to the next.
What causes one to go from one stage to the next?
Some of the progression is biological in nature (e.g., sexual feelings, puberty...), and some is prompted by social pressures (e.g., choosing a career, retirement, having a child, marriage).
Contrast between Erikson and Piaget's theoretical focus
Erikson's describes the variety of feelings we bring to tasks; Piaget's focuses on intellectual development.

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