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a and p 2 chp.19


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cells of the body are serviced by what 2 fluids?
blood/interstitial flood
composed of plasma and a variety of cells
transports nutrients and wastes
interstitial fluid
bathes the cells of the body
what difuses from the blood into the interstitial fluid and then into the cells?
nutrients and oxygen
wastes move in what direction?
study of blood and blood disorders
what are the functions of blood?
transportation regulation protection from disease and lost of blood
turn strong into a weaker
02/co2/metabolic waste/nutrients/heat and hormones
ph (buffers)
body temp.(coolant properties of water)
(vasolidation of surface vessels dump heat)
water content of cells(interaction with disolved irons and proteins)
protection from disease
white blood cells
what protects from the loss off blood?
blood is what compared to water?
thicker and flows more slowly
blood volume
higher in males because of testosterome
(stimulates red blood cell production)
blood volume is controlled by what?
negative feed back loop
liver cell
components of blood
hematocrit plasma/cells/99%rbc/1%wbc and platelets
blood plasma
water/plasma proteins/other substances
plasma proteins are
created in the liver
confined to bloodstream
plasma proteins found in blood plasma are
maintain blood osmotic pressure
carry substances that can not be carried in water
(immunoglobulins)-antibodies bind to foreign substances called antigens
-form antigen antibody complexes
for clotting
other substances in blood plasma
electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, and wate products
what do albumin, globulins, and fibrogens all have in common?
-all made by liver cells
-all play a role in creating asthmatic pressure
wbcs are
special cell fragments
what are formed elements of blood?
percentage of blood occupied by cells
what causes high blood pressure?
thickness of blood
not enough rbcs or hemoglobin
too many rbcs
-dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping
formation of blood cells in a adult
occurs only in red marrow of flat bones
formation of blood cells in the embryo
occurs in yolk sac,liver,spleen,thymus,lymph nodes, and red bone marrow
most blood cells need to be
continually replaced
what is the process of blood cell formation?
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
pluripotent stem cell
all formed elements of blood are made from this one cell that divides and diferentiates
pluripotent stem cells ------ themselves as they difrentiate into
myeloid or lymphoid stem cells
myeloid stem cell line
-progenitor cells no longer can divide and are specialized to form specific cell types
-next generation is blast cells
blast cells
has recognizable histological characteristics
develop within several divisions into mature cell types
progenitor cells
colony forming units
hemopoietic growth factors
-regulate differentiation and proliferation
-thrombopoietin (tpo)
-cytokines are local hormones of bone marrow
produced by kidneys increase rbc precursors
hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation
cytokines are local hormones of bone marrow
produced by some marrow cells to stimulate proliferation in other marrow cells
colony stimulating factor (csf) and interlukin stimulate white blood cell production
rbcs live
120 days
in macrophages of liver and spleen
-globin portion broken down into amino acids and recycled
-heme portion split into iron and biliverdin
-transported in blood attached to transferin protein
-stored in liver, muscle, or spleen
(attached to ferritin or hemosiderin protein)
-in bone marrow used for hemoglobin synthesis
bilverdin converted to bilirubin
bilirubin secreted by the liver into bile
-converted to urobilinogen then stercobilin by bacteria of large intestine
-if reabsorbed from intestines into blood is converted to a yellow pigment urobilin and secreted in urine
erythrocyte formation
erythropoiesis production of rbcs
-proerythroblasts start to produce hemoglobin
-many steps later nucleus is ejected and a reticulocyte is formed
-reticulocytes escape from bone marrow into the blood
-in 1-2 days they eject the remaining organneles to become a mature rbc
feedback control of rbc production
tissue hypoxia
kidney response to hypoxia
-release erythropoietin
-speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes
normal reticulocyte count
low count in an anemic person might indicate bone marrow problems
high count might indicate recent blood loss or a successful iron therapy
wbc anatomy and type
all wbcs (leukocytes) have a nucleus and no hemoglobin
granular or agranulae classification
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
monocytes or lymphocytes
monocyte is the largest
wbc in circulating blood
-does not remain in blood long before migrating to the tissues
-differentiate into macrophages
high white blood cell count
low wbc count
emigration and phagocytosis in wbcs
- wbcs roll along endothelium, stick to it and squeeze between cells
-neutrocytes and macrophages phagocytize bacteria and debris
walking toward
when cells die it creates a substance letting other structures know to watch out, and telling white blood cells to come clean up
neutrophil fx
-fastest response of all wbc to bacteria
_direct actions against bacteria
-release lysozymes
-release defensive proteins
-release strong oxidants
monocyte fx
clean up crew
basophil fx
turn into mast cells
heighten the inflametory response and account for hypersensitivity(allergic reaction)
eosinophil fx
watch dog for basophils
release histaminase
-slows down inflimation caused by basophils
-attack parasitic worms
lymphocyte fx
b-cells in lymphatic
t-cells kill directly
natural killer cells
up bacterial/up if viral/up if fungal,viral infection/up if parasite or allergy reaction/up if allergy reaction or hypothyroid
form in bone marrow
short life span 5-9 days
stoppage of bleeding
blood cloting
coagulation-formation of fibrin threads
vascular spasm
reflex contraction of smooth muscle of small blood vessel
reduce blood loss for a couple of hours
3 steps involved in platelet plug formation
platelet adhesion, platelet release reactions, platelet aggregation
clotting cascade
-prothrombinase is formed by either the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway
-final common pathway produces fibrin threads
roll of vitamin k in clotting factors
needed for production of clotting factors

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