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what direction does the RIBOSOME read mRNA?
5' to 3'
what direction does the amino acid chain grow in translation?

which end are amino acids added onto?
N-terminal to C-terminal.

add onto Carboxy terminal end.
what catalyzes the activation of tRNA

how many are there?
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

one of 20
fmet-tRNAf whats it for
formylated fmet-tRNA; activated transfer RNA with methionine on it, and the amino terminal blocked with formaldehyde.
what is the shine dalgarno sequence
a purine-rich region on the 5' end of mRNA.

3' end of 16s rRNA of 30S subunit (small) is pyrimidine rich; binds to purine rich region of mRNA with AUG at the decoding site of 30S subunit (ready for Methionine - start codon
how many times does the cycle repeat when forming a pp chain in translation?
n-1 times for a chain n pp long
what does EF-Tu do?
elongation factor Tu;
binds aminoacyl-tRNA in GTP form;
then hydrolyzes to GDP when aa-tRNA complexes and binds to A site of ribosome.
what is Ts
a GTP/GDP exchange factor

regenerates EF-Tu-GTP for another round of bringing aa-tRNA to A site..
how aminoacyl tRNA synthetases recognize tRNAs
specific interactions between the tRNA molecule and bases on the enzyme, and also interaction with the anticodon loop and the acceptor stem
what hydrolyzes incorrect AA-tRNA pairs on threonyl tRNA synthetase
second active site - editing site
what subunit of the ribosome is the PTC on
peptidyl transferase center is on the 50S subunit - where the acceptor stems bind.

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