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Lynch 11- the Age of the Papacy 2


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'the pope is the church
papa est ecclesia 14C assertion of pope's power
argument that pope had full power to manage the church and even lay society
plena potestas
a third of the first years income of a newly appointed patriarch, archbishop, bishop, or abbot
what were benefices?
paid positions on the church given to people by appointment. Bishops, abbots, lay patrons and town councils ued to have the right to make the appointments, but by the 14th C the pope had gained control
function of church councils
was at first where bishops exercised their collective authority and made new canon law, but changed when popes became proper source of new laws. 12 C popes began calling general assemblies where popes summoned people, set the agenda, presided in person or by legates, and ratified their decisions. Ecumenical council became instrument of papal authority as well.
pope who reserved canonizations for the papacy so that only pope could officially declare a person a saint
Gregory IX (1227-41)
pope who began to insist that canonizations be carried out in a formal way with the participation of the pope
Alexander III (1159-81)
some roles of papal legates
preside over councils, negotiate with rulers, investigate important legal cases on the spot, organize crusades, collect money owed to pope, mediate national and international disputes, refer complex and politically dangerous situations back to the pope
What are the some of the ways that popes exercised their legal power?
-Papal dispensations (huge increase in 12-13C) - legates - increased control over bishops
scholars who worked on papal decretals
scholars who studied the Decretum
second element of the canon law name items included, when and under what pope they were included, author if available. What is the name of this collection?
- 1234 Raymond of Pennaforte's collection of decretal letters approved by pope Gregory IX -1298 Pope Boniface VIII issued another collection of decretals, Liber Sextus - 1317 Pope Clement VI added another official collection as a whole they are the Corpus iuris canonici (the Body of Canon Law)
normal way to legislate for all of Christendom in 12-13 C
papal letters on theological, liturgical, and disciplinary matters in which they rendered judgement
Who, when, and where was the canon law reorganized in the 12C and what was it called?
Gratian, 1140s, Bologna, Concordance of the Discordant Canons- the Decretum
What did the judges of King _____ in 12C England create that led to interest in law during this century?
Henry II; common law
What was rediscovered in Italy that contributed to the reknewed emphasis on law in the 12-13C?
Justinian's Corpus iuris civilis (The Body of Civil Law)
12th and 13C were an age of ______.
Upon what was the pope's authority based in the 12th and 13th C?
not on his military power, but on his position as vicar of X, sucessor of St. Peter, and head of Xendom

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