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Gram (-) rods


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Lethal toxin of Bordatella pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Dermonecrotic toxin: local necrosis
action of pertussis toxin
ADP ribosylation of Gi; increased adenylate cyclase & cAMP
3 stages of pertussis intoxication:
Catarrhal, Paroxysmal (most infectious), Convalescent
which one isn't characteristic of pertussis--increase in cGMP, hypoglycemia, increase in phagocytosis, increase in cAMP?
increase in cGMP
Growth rqs presence of Factors X (heme) and V (NAD)
Hemophilus Influenza
1 yr old infant w/ neck rigidity, seizures, Culture reveals Gram (-) bug that requires follows an URTI (strain B)and exhibits satellitism. Suspect?
Hemophilus influenza
Alcoholic w/ currant jeylly sputum, upper lobe inflammation, culture shows no motility. suspect?
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Virulence factor- monotricous flagella
Legionella pneumophilia (LegionaireÂ’s Disease)
Has adhesions, invasions, flagella (motility/chemotaxis), exoenzyme S, exotoxin A, LPS, hemolysins, antiphagocytic properties (capsule, slime, LPS), Pyoverdin, has glycocalyx
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Normal colonization of Bacteroides fragilis is found where?
Normal colonization of Cornybacteria diptheria is found where?
throat epithelium
Coastal traveller presents with bloddy diarrhea. Culture shows Lac (+) bugs
E. coli
Coastal traveller presents with bloody diarrhea. Culture shows Lac (-) colonies. suspect?
Bug that produces "traveller's diarrhea;" the famous Montezuma's revenge:
E. coli--ETEC
Bug that produces HUS, produces shiga-like toxin (verotoxin), and inhibits protein synthesis by attacking the 60S ribosome
EHEC--E. coli 0157:H7
epithelial invasive bacteria that produces shiga-like toxin and colonizes Lac (+).
E. coli--EIEC
Diagnosis of Enterobacteriaceae generalities:
Eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar (inhibits Gram [+]), MacConkey agar (bile salts inhibit Gram [+])
Virulence of Enterobacteriaceae generalities:
Antigens O (outer LPS), K (capsule), & H (flagella)
Virulence of Escherichia coli:
K & H antigens, siderophores, adhesins, fimbriae (pili)
Toxins of Escherichia coli:
LT (cAMP), ST (cGMP), shiga-like toxin
Treatment of Escherichia coli:
Cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones
Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae:
cephalosporin, ciprofloxacin
Toxins of Shigella dysenteriae:
shiga-toxin (inhibits 60S ribosome, protein synthesis)
Treatment of Shigella dysenteriae:
Fluoroquinolones, Trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin
Virulence of Vibrio cholerae:
H antigen, mucinase, fimbriae, non-invasive
Toxins of Vibrio cholerae:
Choleragen (increases cAMP)
Treatment for Vibrio cholerae:
replace fluids, doxycycline, fluoroquinolone
Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae:
Flat yellow colonies: thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose agar (TCBS), dark fluid microscopy of stool
Virulence of of Vibrio parahaemolyticus:
H antigen, capsule
Toxins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus:
hemolytic cytotoxin
Diagnosis of of Vibrio parahaemolyticus:
thiosulfate & bile salts
Treatment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus:
Fluoroquinolone, Erythromycin
Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni:
H antigen, invasive
Toxins of Campylobacter jejuni:
enterotoxin, cytotoxin
Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni:
Fluoroquinolone, Erythromycin
Diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni:
Microscopic Gram (-) curved motile rods, selective media at 42 degrees C.
Treatment of H. pylori:
Bismuth, ampicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline; or clarithromycin and omeprazole
Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
H antigen, hemolysin, collagenase, elastase, fibrinolysin, phospholipase C, DNAase, antiphagocytic capsule
Toxins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
Exotoxin A
Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
Ticarcillin, Timentin, Carbenicillin, Piperacillin, Mezlocillin, Ciprofloxacin, Imipenem, Tobramycin, Aztreonam
Diagnosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
fruity-smelling metallic green colonies on blood agar

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