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Russian Revolution 2


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•moderate constitutionalist faction
•gained victory in 1905 when Nicholas II agreed to create a Duma & introduce universal manhood suffrage
•relatively wealthy/middle class professionals who despised radical unrest from the masses just as much as they hated autocratic rule
Assembly of Russian Factory Workers
•Father Gapon's union of wokers
•given initial support from the government as an outlet for worker concerns
•union soon took on a life of its own, staging strikes and paralysing industrial production in St. Peterburg for days
•russian for 'council'
•democratically elected representatives of the workers (cities) and peasants (countryside)
October Manifesto
•issued oct 1905 by Nicholas II in response to the unrest & violence of the previous months, with the intention of dividing the opposition
•pledged to create a legislative assembly elected by universal manhood suffrage, though unequally distributed, & promised to offer new political and civil liberties along with the right to organize unions and political parties
•modern constitutionalists who cautiously accepted the promises of the October Manifesto
•became goverment allies as long as Nicholas II followed through on his promises
•russian legislative assembly, or lower house of parliament
•elected by universal manhood suffrage, but gentry votes were given greater weight than worker or peasant votes
•belief that all Slavic peoples should maintain a close connection to one another
•popular amongs many intellectuals in 19th & 20th centuries
•possible reason for Russian sympathy toward Serbs during WW1
Total War
•A state of society and of economy when everything is dedicated toward the war effort
•WW1 - Tsar put Russia on total war footing, which directed resources & money away from the workers and peasants who desperately needed them
Scorched earth policy
•the Russian war plan during WW1, in which because the Russian forces couldn't stop the German advance, they instead denied the Germans the spoils of victory by burning all crops and stores of food as they retreated
•succeeded militarily but created thousands & thousands of Russian refugees that streamed into the cities to flee fires and lack of food
Petrograd Soviet
•council set up in Petrogad as the representative body of the city's workers
•after Feb Revo, this body, dominated by socialists, shared dual power with Kerensky's Prov Gov
Provisional Government
•set up by the Duma that Nicholas II dissolved in Feb
•consisted of moderates and one socialist, Kerensky
•pledged to introduce democracy while continuing war against Germany
Dual Power
•shared power between Prov Gov and Petrograd Soviets
•collaps of the Prov Gov was partially due to its assumption of dictatorial power without sharing power with the Soviets
Socialist Revolutionaries
•"peasant lovers" - Marxist socialists
•called for land redistribution above all else
•after octo revo, became the single largest represented party in the new legislative assembly
Provision Goverment Porgramme
March, 1917
•manifesto stating the goals of the Prov Gov
•envisioned a liberal democratic goverment on the Western model with proper guarantees for civil and political rights
•pledged to end bureaucratic control of daily life and promised to convene a democratically elected Constituent Assembly to determine the legitimate form of the new Russian state
•Also pledged to vigorously prosecute the war toward a Russian victory
Order Number 1
•Petrograd Soviet decree that established societ control over army unites and created soldier committees to check the power of the regular hierarchy
•democratized the army at a time of great military risk
First All-Russian Congress of Soviets
•called by Menshevik ministers who wanted to take control of the volatile situation in Petrograd at the time.
•The congress was a disaster because the delegates were met with Bolshevik-style demonstrations against the Prov Gov & Petrograd Soviet
July Days - July 1917
•soldiers and workers, with aid of Bolshevik operatives, staged insurrections throughout the country
•troops loyal to the Prov Gov eventually suppressed the revold by the end of the month
•event underscored the sense of constant violence, the recognition of insurmountable problems, & lack of confidence in goverment
•meant monitoring how the factory was run, how money was allocated, etc
•key demand of worker groups in Petrograd centered on 'kontrol'
Military Revolutionary Committee
•army of the Petrograd Soviet established in Oct 1917 to restore order, but eventually became headquarters of Bolshevik activity during the Oct Revo
•Bolsheviks used the legitimacy of this branch of the Soviet to legally seize power
Workers' and Peasants' Goverment
•a provisional government set up by Bolsheviks after the Octo Revo
•a Bolshevik dominated body that pledged to end the war, redistribute land, & bring back food & energy to the cities
•seen as the manifestation of Marx's dictatorship of the proletariat
•Lenin's secret police
•a sign that Lenin cared little for democratic priniples
•justified under the concept of Marx's dictatorship of the proletariat
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
•peace treaty between USSR & Germany
•ended Russian participation in WW1
•under treaty, Lenin gave up considerable amount of land to the east, but that didn't matter as he needed peace to regain stability and ensure Bolshevik hold on power
War Communism
•a total war scenario set up by Lenin to prosecute the civil war
•included the nationalisation of all industry, terrorism from the secret police, and forced seizures of grain from peasants
•probably contributed to famine of 1921-22
•served to win the war for the Bolsheviks
Dictatorship of the proletariat
•what Marx thought was necessary in the immediate transition from capitalism to communism
•the workers had to be in charge without any external opposition and difficulties so it could effectively destroy capitalist sentiment and other enemies

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