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Effects of Immobility

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Musculoskeletal System
-Disuse Osteoporosis: bones become demineralized
-Disuse Atropy: muscles decrease in size
-Contractures: permanent shortening of muscle fibers
-Stiffness and pain in joints: collagen becomes ankylosed
Cardiovascular System
-Diminished cardiac reserve: tachycardia and angina w/minimal exertion
-Increased use of Valsalva maneuver: holding breath and straining against closed glottis
-Orthostatic Hypotension: pooling of blood
-Venous vasodilation
-Dependent Edema:
-Thrombus Formation
Respiratory System
-Decreased respiratory movement: vital capacity reduced due to rigidity
-Pooling of respiratory secretions
-Atelectasis: collapse of a lobe or entire lung
-Hypostatic pneumonia: bacteria growth in pooled secretions
Metabolic System
-Decreased metabolic rate
-Negative nitrogen balance
-Anorexia
-Negative calcium balance
Urinary System
-Urinary stasis
-Renal calculi
-Urinary retention
-Urinart infection
Gastrointestinal System
-Decreased peristalsis
-Colon motility
-Skeletal weakness: effects the abdominal and perineal muscles used in defecation
-Constipation
Psychonneurologic System
An increased dependence on others can lower a person's self-esteem
Nursing interventions
-Positioning a client correctl
-ROM exercises
-Getting client out of bed regularly if allowed
-Provide trapeze bar for movement in bed
-Nutrition
-Fluids
-Turn Cough Deep Breath: 10x qh
Range of Motion (ROM)
-Should be done every shift
-Support joints
-Proper alignment of body promotes bodily functions
Foot Drop
Flexors are stronger than extensors which make elderly at risk for foot drop

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