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22Matthew C. Perry and Meiji Modernization


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Who sailed into Edo (Tokyo) Bay with his naval warships belching black smoke and terrifying the Japanese in 1853?
American Naval Commodore Matthew C. Perry.
Why did the U.S. want Japan to open its doors to trade?
The US needed a place to refuel ships after crossing the Pacific. It wanted Japan to stop executing shipwrecked sailors. It wanted a sphere of influence similar to Britain's in China.
What was the name of the U.S. attempts to have equal trade opportunities and force Japan to open to trade?
The Open Door Policy.
In 1867, what happened that demonstrated that the Japanese were willing to change?
The last shogun was forced to abdicate and accept blame for being unable to protect Japan from the power of the West.
Who was restored to more power than he had had in centuries?
The Emperor - Emperor MEIJI (real name: Mutsuhito)took the throne in 1868.
What political changes were made in Japan during the Meiji Restoration period?
(1) a Constitution was created in 1889 as a gift to the Japanese people by the Emperor; (2) a Western style Diet (legislature) was created but had very limited powers (much weaker than Congress in the US or Parliament in Britain).
What military changes occurred during the Meiji Restoration (Modernization)?
(1) It's army was based on Prussia's army; (2) It's navy was based on the British navy; (3) the military leaders only had to report to the Emperor.
What economic changes occurred in Meiji Japan?
(1) Industrial revolution and industrialization throughout Japan; (2) postal system and banks modernized; (2) Zaibatsu (powerful corporation families) grew.
Where did samurai and other Japanese advisors go to study modern techniques?
They studied modern industry, military and financial institutions in American and Europe.
What are the Zaibatsu corporations of Japan?
They are powerful family-controlled commercial corporations of Japan.
Why do we call Japan's economy a mixed one if it borrows so much capitalism from the West?
The Japanese government strongly supported and helped Japanese businesses get the raw materials and markets they needed.
What geographic challenge was a problem as Japan modernized and industrialized?
Japan's lack of natural resources, arable and energy would lead toward aggressive miltarism.
What were two early conflicts that showed Japan's military were going to be used to expand to grab resources and land in 1894-95 and 1904-05?
(1) 1894-1895 was the Sino (Chinese)-Japanese War, which gave Japan ports and control in Manchuria; (2) the Russo-Japanese War, which was the first time an Asian nation defeated a European one (Russia).
What U.S. President negotiated Peace treaties between Japan and China/Russia?
Teddy Roosevelt.
How did Japan's remarkable modernization happen?
(1) Government incentives for businesses to use western technology; (2) Japan's homogeneous culture (common culture, language, hard-work ethic, etc.); (3) Japan's tradition of borrowing and adapting from other nations.

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