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what is the only unqualified good?
the good will
1st formulation of the cat imp
Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
2nd Formulation of Cat Imp
Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a universal law of nature.
2 types of imperatives:
hypothetical imperative
practical; determines the means to an end. If X, then Y.
2 types:
Imperative of skill, Precept of Prudence
You can reject the end, and the means.
4 Duties
Perfect Imperfect
Self Preserve Life | Develop Talents

Other Keep Prom/truth| Benevolence
What is your Perfect Duty to Self, and why?
To preserve your life.
Because it clearly cannot be a law of nature for all people to kill themselves; if everyone died, nature itself would cease to exist.
What is your Perfect Duty to Others and why?
To tell the truth - keep promises.
Because if you did not tell the truth and did not keep your promises, all truth would be worthless and chaos in the world would result.
What is the Imperfect Duty to self and why?
people have a duty to cultivate their talents, because if everyone spent their life in idleness no one would benefit from human capacities. Cannot will this all the time, tho, but it doesn't create chaos in the world.
What is the Imperfect Duty to others and why?
To give charity.
No one has a corresponding RIGHT to your charity, but you are obligated to give it.
Because if all of us were heartless then none of us could find assistance in times of need
What do Perfect Duties tell us
what to do precisely, and ALL the teim.

-Every time you speak, tell the truth.
-Every time you make a promise, keep it.
What do Imperfect Duties tell us?
Give a range of options, because you can't consistently will it all the time.
-Can't ALWAYS develop your talents.
-Can't ALWAYS benefit others.
What happens when you contradict your perfect duties?
Chaos results in the world.

-Tell the truth, promises become worthless.
-Kill yourself, everyone starts killing selves.
What is the difference between PErfect and Imperfect Duties?
Perfect prescribes a specific course of action.

Imperfect prescribes a range of actions.
EXAMPLE: if you have a perfect duty to other, someone has a corresponding right.
if you have an imperfect duty to other, no one has a corresponding right.
What is the problem with Kant's Formulation of the categorical imp?
He doesn't specify the range of universality; if you specify the circumstances of an action far enough, you can get away with murder.
3rd formulation of the cat imp;
act in such a way thtat you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and neer simply as a means.
How the 2nd formulation of the Cat Imp applies to duties:
(ok, the third)
We are ends, not means.
1. Self: Can't kill yourself to avoid pain.
2. Others: Can't lie to people to gain for ourself. (use sam to shovel)
3. Self: Devel. develop talents to further humanity.
4. Others: Strive to further not only your ends, but others as well - be beneficient.
Kingdom of Ends Formulation
-Brings the two formulations together:
Universality of Law; Treat persons as ends, not means.

Every person takes as their own ends, the ends of every other person. Then we all act the same and in harmony. Each considers the humanity of others as his own end.

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