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Phil part 2


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3 sciences of Ancient Greece

Physics and Ethics - what distinctifies them
both deal with some OBJECT.
what makes logic distinct
it only deals wth the form of the syllogism. not concerned with an object, or the variables.
what is physics subject to and what does it tell us
the Law of Nature; tell us what DOES happen
what is ETHics subjet to, and what does it tell us?
Subject to the Law of Freedom.
Tells us what SHOULD - ought to - happen.
What did Newton do? What was his characteristic statement?
He was prior to Kant; he made it appear that the phenomenal world was determined.
"If we knew where every particle of matter was, and its speed, we could know all future states of the universe.
How Newton's Phenomenal Theory affected Kant's metaphysics of morals:
We don't have uninterpreted access to the world; it's all through filters of space and time..
The way we interpret the physical world is absolutely determined.
For Kant: If we knew where every...
particle was in space and time, and its speed, we could predict the future state of all matter. BUT says kant, we don't know; we only have our perception of it.
How Kant's use of the phenomenological theory affects reason and the intellect: hint aed
Our physical body is in the phenomenal world. Our Appetites Emotions and Desires are all for physical things. Therefore, they are determined, physical reactions. How do we praise/blame them?
for KANT?
nothing but behavior modifiers. not our own responses as an agent.
what are our AED subject to then, for KANT?
laws of nature. physics. physical
What's in the Noumenal World?
The completely unphysical WILL.
What is the Will subject to
the law of FREEDOM.
What was Kant's goal?
To get us to stop using the phenomal world to study ethics. Ethics does not have to do with physical!!!
independent of all experience
What do we know a priori for kant?
that lying is wrong because the law of freedom says it's wrong.

DON'T rely on experience to know this. that is the phenomouenal, which does not have to do with the noumenal ethics.
What do Ethical Laws NOT have?
ANY phenomenal grounding. Even if we encounter ethical laws in the physical world, they don't DEPEND on that.
what is the only unqualified good for kant?
the good will.
why are things other than the good will good for kant?
because they're in conjunction with a good will.
Happiness for Kant
complete well-being and contentment with one's condition.
3 Arguments for the Good Will
A. The only unqualified good
B. Only good in itself - not fitness.
C. The Ultimate end
3 parts of 1C: good will is the ultimate end, not happiness:
1. Best-suited organ does its job.
2. Reason is a bad organ for the job of attaining happiness. Instinct is better.
3. There must be some higher end for reasonable beings - the good will.

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