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Lynch 12- The Testament Revived


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early medieval view of Bible
OT made more cultural sense God- lord of Hosts who led them into battle and strict judge who would repay everyone according to their deeds, attracted to elaborate moral and ritual appeals appealed to clergy trying to introduce order into a very disorderly society 7-10 C Irish tried to introduce OT practices into contemporary xianity ex tithes
shift in biblical perspective after 10C
11-14C xians discovered emotional power of NT loving God who sent his son to live in poverty, die on behalf of humankind, rise in glory. Caused by 11C reform movement- movement from sacred kinship model based on OT kings to NT promises from X to Peter. Papacy downplayed OT models. Also rapid rise of towns in 12-13 C- new ways of ministering to human types new to the W- urban merchant, artisan, and the urban poor.
evangelical revival in 11C with pilgrimage, new identification with NT, greater involvement of lay people in religious life while remaining in secular world, beginning of age of personal prayer books, vernacular translations of prayers, building of Gothic cathedrals as teaching devices, covered with images inside, huge increase of preaching to lay audiences, mystery plays
vita apostolica
"the apostolic life" 12-13C renunciation of personal wealth, sharing with the breathren, life in a community and preachin the message of personal salvation <b>poverty and preaching</b>
problems with Cluniac order
By 1095 there were too many monasteries to supervise; many Cluniac houses never saw abbot and slackened in observances of eating meat, accepting unsuitable candidates, internal quarrels, worldly lifestyle. Went into debt with building projects.
Founder and founding date of Cistercian order
1098 Abbot Robert of Molesme
How did the Cistercians begin?
Abbot Robert of Molesme failed to pursuade the monks of his house to adopt a more austere version of Benedictine life. Withdrew from his monastery with 21 monks and founded a new monastery at Citeaux in Burgundy. Order struggled for 20 yrs and attracted no new recruits to poor, harsh life until 1112 when a 22-yr old noble named Bernard sought admission with 20 men. By the time he was 25 he was abbot of Clairvaux, a daughter house of Citeaux. Was a magnificent preacher despite illness and the force that launched the order on a period of growth.
differences bt Cistercian and Cluniac order
went back to origins of Benedicts rule. each C. house had its own abbot (Cl. had one for whole order), C. reitroduced yearlng novitiate period, rejected pracice of admitting children, balanced prayer and work instead of Cl. emphasis on just prayer, preference for solitude in wild places, performed physicial labor to support themselves, apostolic poverty, rough undyed woollen habits, austere vegetarian diet, churches without sculpture, stained glass, paintings, ornaments, or bell towers, celebrated liturgy in simple vestments, minimized contact with lay word but accepted lower-class men and lay brohters , did not own parish churches or administer sacriments to lay people, did not accept dying men wishing to become monks on their deathbeds, did not permit women to enter cloistered areas, limited visitation rights of laymen and secular clerics
illiterate lay brothers accepted by the Cistercians to aid in hard farm work. Were real monks with simplified liturgical duties and a heavy responsibility for agricultural work. Had no voting rights. First tie since monastic origins in near east that large numbers of lower class men were welcomed into monastic life, and response was enthusiastic.
Carta caritatis
12C written constitution of the Cistercians regulating relations within farflung federation of monasteries. Purpose was to maintain unity in liturgy and discipline and to prevent deviations from strict norms. Combined large degree of local autonomy with strict supervision.Went a step beyond Benedict's rule to integrate individual houses into a carefully structured order.
What institutions was the discipline of the Cistercian order rooted in?
genealogical connections of mother and daughter houses, called filiations, annual visitations, and annual meetings of all the abbots, called general chapters
founded by Bruno of Cologne (1030-1101) Benedictine encouraged eremitic way of life. during the week monks lived alone in small apartments, doing everything in complete silence. Sundays they gathered for mass, common meal, and conversation. lay brothers took care of them. Borrowed from the Cistercians the use of visitations and general chapters. combination of life of hermit and monk greatly admired and acknoledged as most difficult form of religious life
Knights of the Templars
1120 Hugh of Payen a french night founded them to combine monastic life with military service, and to defend pilgrims in Jerusalem. Were to be poor, obedient, and chaste. White habit, red cross, headed by a maset and divided into three groups: knights who fought, sergeants who aided them, and chaplians to provide religious services. disbanded wih the failure of the crusades
problems for women's monastic communities in high middle ages
-surplus of women in population
- women could not say mass for the dead
-convents needed a large staff of male clerics/workers so they could maintain claustration
- lack of suitible chaplains and spiritual advisors
-rumor of sexual scandal

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