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Micro - BT agents


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How is Y. Pestis transmitted?
*Via an insect vector associated with a rodent host
*there is also aerosol transmission with p-p spread (in pneumonic form)
What are the 3 disease states caused by Y. pestis?
There is a large family of virulence factors associated with Y. pestis. What is its name? Give an example.
*fraction 1: an anti-phagocytic capsule
What members of the immune system are able to deal with Y. pestis successfully? Which ones are not?
*killed by PMN
*not killed by macrophage
Brucella is common in what food products?
Unpastuerized dairy products.
What does the Brucella bacteria look like?
A tiny G- rod
How does brucella disseminate?
*phagocytosed but not killed
*spread through the RES by macrophages
What are some symptoms of infection with Brucella? What other disease can this easily be confused with?
Granulomas and lesions easily confused with TB.
Which species is "hardier" - Brucella or L. monocytogenes?
Listeria: it is able to withstand high salt concentrations and extremes of temperature. Brucella is killed at the temperature of pasteurization.
Other than an anti-phagocytic capsule, what are 3 important virulence factors for anthrax? What does each do?
1.Protective Ag: binds to allow entry of factors
2.Lethal factor: stimulates release of TNF-a
3.Edema factor: interferes with adenylate cyclase to cause extravasation
Is there a vaccine for anthrax? What about treatment?
*vaccine is made of cell-free filtrates and has high efficacy but some side effects
*rx: PCN-G; cipro; tetracycline
*tx must precede toxemia stage to be effective
What does the anthrax bacteria look like? How is it transmitted?
*G+ spore-forming rod
*infection is via spores, no p-p spread
What is a significant symptom of cutaneous anthrax? How is it contracted?
*formation of black eschar
*handling contaminated items
What symptoms are seen with the GI form of anthrax? How is it contracted? What is its prognosis?
*bloody diarrhea and emesis
*ingestion of spores
*high mortality
Describe the course of inhalational anthrax. What's its prognosis?
*spores inhaled
*transferred by macrophages to lymph nodes
*rapid progression leading to respiratory failure and shock
*high mortality

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