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Cognitive Science


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What is top down processing?
Using information learned from experience.
Recognition (top)
Features combined contextual info
Gestalt principles of organization
Primal sketch--depth information
Light energy--feature extraction
What are the two stages of perception?
Registering the sensory data
Interpreting the data
Compare visual, apperceptive and associative agnosia.
Visual--inability to recognize objects (not caused by lack of general intelligence or loss of basic sensory abilities)

Apperceptive--cannot recognize simple shapes, draw or copy shapes. (One patient could recognize things by feel, smell, or sound.

Associative--can recognize simple shapes and copy complex drawings but cannot recognize complex drawings. My be caused by pattern recognition problems (late processing)
What is neural path from eye to brain?
nerve fiber layer of retina
optic nerve
optic chiasm
lateral geniculate body
superior colliculus
visual cortex
What is the difference between the rod neural cells of the retina and the cone neural cells of the retina?
rods 120 million most sensitive to light and dark, shape and movement.
slow to adapt to darkness but good in low light.
More numerous in periphery

Cones 6 million dense in center of fovea most sensitive to green red and blue
What are Center-surround cells?
ganglion cells in optic nerve
Maximum response when the center and surround light intensities are very different--contrast
What are edge and bar detectors?
Cells with overlapping regions found in visual cortex
Specific to position orientation and width
8 basic orientations but more detected with combinations

Center-surround cells may form bar detectors or edge detectors
What is a hypercolumn?
Representation in the visual cortex organized in one dimension according to orientation of line and in the other dimension according to eye.
What gives vision depth clues?
Stereopsis (different angle from each eye)

Motion Parallax (more distant points travel more slowly across retina)
How can you infer distance?
Using texture gradience. Objects further away are smaller, closer together and lines converge
If early vision detects only edges bars, orientation and distance, how do we combine these into 3D picture.
Shadow and shading important
Gestalt principles of organization
What are the Gestalt principles of organization?
3.Good continuation
What are theories of Pattern Recognition?
1. Template Matching--feature analysis
2. Recognition by components (Biederman, 1987 ironing board, camera, plane,desk)--object is segmented into set of basic subobjects. Classify the category of each suboject(geons) and recognize an object as a configuration of geons.
Give an example of the word superiority effect in recognition?
Reicher (1969) and WHeeler (1970)
Subjects were shown pair of alternatives
work or word
k or d
10% more accurate on the words even though they were processing 4x the info
What is Massaro's Experiment on context and stimulus?
FLMP--Fuzzy logic model of perception.
varied context and stimulus for c and e
some--only e forms a word
some--only c forms a word
some--either forms a word
some--neither forms a word
Compare the Pattern Recogntion Network Model (McClelland and Rumelhart, 1981)to Massaro's FLMP.
Network model predicts too much effect from context (can affect sensitivity to letter stimulus recognition)

Network model explains how processing of adjacent letters affects processing of each letter.
What is serial bottleneck?
At some point human information processing serial
Motor actions
High level cognitions
Bottleneck requires us to select info to process (role of attention)
Contrast Early Selection theory, Broadbent's Filter theory (1958)
Attenuation Theory
Late Selection Theory
Early--info selected before its undergone much processing.
Lindsay & Norman, 1977 Dichotic listening--Shadowing task subject could not remember any words spoken in other ear or the language although they could tell human vs noise and male vs female.

Broadbent's Filter (classic theory of attention) Subject chooses which message to process based on some physical characteristic(like voice pitch)Support--early auditory area of cortex showed enhanced response to signals coming from ear being shadowed.
Challenge--people can attend to message based on semantic content (like hearing your name at a cocktail party)

Attenuation theory extended Broadbent's theory--messages are weakened by not completely filtered out on basis of physical features. Semantic selection criteria applies to all messages regardless of attenuation although its harder with attenuated messages.
What's the role of salience?

Late selection theory--all info processed completely unattenuated and the capacity limitation is in the response system.
What studies compared Attenuation vs Late Selection theories?
1. Treisman and Geffen (1967)
Shadow one message and process both for target word. Tap if they heard target word.
If late selection, messages from both ears should get through and subjects should detect target word equally well from either ear.
If attenuation much less detection in non-shadowed ear which turned out to be the case.

2. Glucksberg and Cowan (1970)
Shadowed message in one ear
heard digit in other ear
subject stopped and asked whether a digit had occurred.
25% correct if cued immediately
Performance dropped dramatically if cued after two seconds
Concluded that info in unattended message is available for a very short period but lost within 5 seconds. Neisser called this Echoic memory.
contrast iconic and echoic memory?
Both are extremely shor butIconic is visual and Echoic is auditory
Compare overt versus covert visual attention.
Overt--fovea region gets maximal visual processing resources and other areas are attenuated.
Covert--don't move eyes attention is more diffuse Evidence-Posner, Nissen, and Ogden (1978)Fixate on constant point and patients can attend as far as 24 degrees from the fovea. (attention usually precedes eye movement.
What is the spotlight metaphor?
Visual attention is like a variable sized spotlight. The bigger the spotlight (diffuse attention) the less well we process info. The smaller the spotlight the more detail available.
What did Visual Shadowing study (Neisser and Becklen, 1975)show?
Two superimposed videos, subjects were supposed to follow one but monitor both. It was extremely difficult to remember odd details in unattended video
What are the interdisciplinary fields of cognitive science?
Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive science aim is to understand what the mind does and how it does it.
What is the human cognitive architecture?

Perceptual system with sensory (registers)memory (visual 1 sec Auditory 250ms)

Cognitive(exec system) with working memory-semantic 7+-2 chunks(propositional codes),visual=4-5 objects(shape color orientation direction of movement and distance),and auditory=4-5 sec of sound (sound codes-speech based codes for language)and long term memory

Motor system

Compare explicit memory and implicit memory?
Explicit is declarative - that you consciously remember .
Type-semantic=facts like Dogs have 4 legs.
Type-episodic=linked to time and place like My dog went swimming this morning.

Implicit is available at the sub-conscious level like the procedural knowledge of how to ride a bike or type on a keyboard.
What are the two types of visual neglect?
Object-based and field-based
What is attention focused on?
location or object
Who did studies on object-based attention?
Sholl at Yale--web site with experiments

Behrmann,Zemel, and Mozer (1998)rectangular objects with bumps laid over each other in X pattern
What is inhibition of return and what experiments support it?
Harder to return to a location (evidence of inhibition of return to object, regardless of location)that you have already attended to. It assists visual search since you don't want to search a region previously searched.

Tipper,Driver, and Weaver (1991)3 squares. subjects attention drawn to one of outer squares by flickering it. then drawn back to center by flickering it. A probe was then presented in one of the two outer positions and subjects were slower to recognize it if it appeared in the location that had already been flickered. In the second study the squares moved and they showed inhibition to return to the same object that flickered,not the location of the object when it flickered.

Visual neglect studies (Behrmann & Moscovitch, 1994) and (Driver, Baylis, Goodrich & Rafal, 1994)give examples of object based attention. Pts who ignore the left side of things regardless of which visual field those objects occur in
What experiment researches whether we can process stimuli in parallel across modalities?
(Karlin and Kestenbaum, 1968)dual task experiment.
1.Visually presented digit-press with specific finger of left hand for specific digit
2.Auditory tone--press with specific finger of right hand for high versus low sound
Subjects told to give task 1 priority and there was a delay between the stimuli.
The first task intefered with the second but there was some overlap and its assumed that the 2 task was being encoded while doing task 1
What is the Stroop effect?
Stroop, 1935 gave list and told subjects to tell him the color of the ink that each word was written in (however some of the words were also color names)
If the name and the color conflicted it took much longer. However with practice they got much better and lines switched places.
What are the three attentional networks?
Alerting (change in internal state of preparation for perceiving a stimulus)
includes frontal and parietal regions particularly of right hemisphere

Orienting (selection from sensory input reflexive or voluntary, covert or overt)
include parts of superior and inferior parietal lobe, frontal eye fields and subcortical areas such as superior colliculus of the midbrain and the pulvinar and reticular nucleus of the thalamus.

Executive Control (Cognitive selection-complex mental operations monitoring the resolving conflict between computations occurring in different areas of the brain)
Includes midline frontal areas (anterior cingulate), lateral prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
What are the two rehearsal systems
Visuospatial Scratchpad (Baddeley)
mental imagery people have better memory for info that can be encoded spatially

Phonological Loop(Baddeley, 1986)
store for speech-based info
system for subvocal speech
Holds amount that can be rehearsed in 2 sec--depends on spoken length not # of syllables.
Contrast declarative and procedural memory.
Declarative memory is explicit factual knowledge that people can report or describe

Procedural knowledge is implicit knowledge that people can manifest only in their performance.

Case of HM who could store new procedural memories but not declarative.
What are WME's?
Working memory elements or "chunks"
Only about 3 components can be combined in a single chunk

They can have configural properties. If they are studied in one order it takes longer to recognize them in another order.
What is Santa's Chunking Experiment
Given shapes its faster to recognize them in the same visuospatial pattern

Given words its faster to recognize them in a linear configuration
What are two ways of forgetting?
Decay-memory fades with time

Proactive- the past interferes with the present
Retroactive-the present interferes with the past
What is Wolfe's guided search theory?
Visual system computes saliency map of objects or locations based on visual features of the search specifications.

Attention is guided to most salient items -- Horiz, Vert, Red, Green

Attention required to know how different features go together -- that the horizontal line is green.
Is the cognitive system serial?
Seems to be but dual tasks are possible.
(driving while listening to radio)
Modeled by
1. Rules--if this then that
2. Neural networks--combines processing and info, difficult for cognitive tasks
Contrast automatic and controlled processes.
Controlled-heavy demands on working memory, goal oriented, flexible

Automatic-no or very little demand on working memory and attention, like a compiled program, triggered by patterns, data driven but can result in errors (driving straight home when you meant to stop at the store)
What is the 3 stage view of skill acquisition?
Interpretive-deliberate interpretation of declarative representations like instructions.

Compiled-procedural representation, faster and fewer errors, no need to reherse instructions.

Automatic additional speedup and decrease in errors
What is the Tri-level hypothesis?
Information processing description
1.Computational-what problem is system solving?
2. Algorithmic or procedural. How is the problem being solved(info processing steps being used)?
3. Implementational or physical- How are the info processing steps carred out physically.
Explain information processing theory
Why do people have intelligent behavior?

People have mental representations
People have algorithmic processes that operate on those representations
Processes applied to the representations produce the behavior
What is a representation?
Domain-what is being represented

Content-the symbols doing the representing

Mapping between domain and content
What are analog representations?
They have an intrinsic mapping to the domain like the length of a line to quantity (Evidence for analog representation is the visual roatation experiment--time to recognize directly proportional to angle of rotation.)

extrinsic mappings would be like arabic numbers
What's a procedure?
One or more operations on a representation.

Depends only on structure of symbols, not their meaning. (Can be taught to multiply without knowing that the symbols represent numbers.)
What ar the levels of analysis?
Knowledge level-what is computed

Symbol level-how, the representations and procedures used to compute

Physical level-physical implemantation-transistors, neurons, etc.

Levels are nearly decomposable which means behavior at one level is not completely independent of the lower level. Physical level constrains kinds of representations and time constraints.(calculator in constrained by size of memory). Some hardware can make computations easier than others-human visual system vs modern computer.
What is Paivio's Dual code theory(1971,1986)?
There are separate representations for visual and verbal information. Evidence-
Santa's verbal vs visual memory experiment
Memory is better if encoded visually and verbally.
What is the homunculus?
An internal being in the brain that looks at pictures. Answer to the question, "Are there pictures in your head and if so, who looks at them?"

If you are just manipulating symbols, how are they grounded in reality?
What were the results of the Mental Rotation experiment (Shepard and Metzler, 1971)?
Linear relationship between reaction time and angular disparity.
What were the results of monkey experiment on Visual Rotation Neural data(Georgopoulos, Lurito, Petrides, Schwartz, and Massey (1989)?
subjects had to move bar left or right either TO a bright light or 90 degrees counterclockwise from a dim light. In the 90 degree trials, motor neurons fire for a move in direction of stimulus and then slowly rotate towards the 90 degree position.
Describe mental image scanning (Brooks, 1968).
Visual scan starting at a certain point. Is it in extreme top or bottom?

Verbal scan a sentence in memory. Is the word a noun or not?

Verbal Say yes or no
Motor Tap left for yes, right for no
Visual Point to Y or N scattered on a sheet.

Visually scanning response interferes with visual mental scanning.
Describe Moyer's Relative size comparison (1973) and what study showed similar results.
Which is larger?
Subjects report visualizing the two objects and comparing.
The more alike the two were the longer it took to respond. (log linear relationship)

Comparison of physical lines (Johnson, 1939)showed similar results
What are visual vs spatial properties?
spatial(parietal lobe)is modality independent

Visual(temporal lobe)has unique properties like color)Pt with temporal lobe damage has sparing of spatial processing like mental rotation
Are visual images the same as visual perception according to Finke, Pinker, and Farah (1989)
Yes , when told to image capital letter N and then connect a diagonal line from top right corner to bottom left corner then rotate 90 degrees, they were able to correctly identify an hourglass from their visual image.
Is there evidence for differences between visual imagery and vision?
ambiguous picture(Bunny/duck)shown briefly and subjects were unable to find the second interpretation without drawing the picture on paper.

However according to (Peterson, et al, 1992)if given examples, subjects can find the alternative interpretations of an image.
What is the neurological evidence for similarity between vision and imagery?
Amount of neural activation (fMRI) with imaging the stimulus is very similar to the amount of activation when the stimulus is present
What is hierarchical structure of images and hierarchical organization of spatial scenes?
Reed, 1974 showed subjects an image and they identified one part 65% OF THE TIME and another only 10% OF THE TIME
What are cognitive maps?
Visual imagery of the spatial structure of our environment built and stored in the hippocampus. However,they are hierarchical and we can be fooled. (Which is further north Seattle or Montreal?) We make decisions based on the larger grouping (states/countries)The four major axis are systematically distorted.

There is progression in learning a spatial environment. A route map is a path from place to place but a survey map gives the general spatial relationships
Compare the primacy effect and recency effect.
Primacy effect is remembering what came first
Recency effect is remembering what came last
What were results of Hierarchical coding experiment (Klahr, et al, 1983)
Generate next letter of alphabet from probe. Position of probe compared to position of chunk had direct effect in the time of response.
Describe Wanner(1968)verbal information representation experiment
One group warned and one not
Each given one of four instructions
1,2 same meaning different style
3,4 same meaning different style
However 1 and 2 have different meaning from 3 and 4.
Memory was better for changes that resulted in a change of meaning
If you warn them to recall EXACT wording ther was a benefit
Describe the Shepard, 1967 visual information representation experiment and did Standing, 1973 agree
Memory seemed better for visual than verbal information
Either studied sentences or magazine pictures.
Presented with pairs of pix or sentences and asked which one they had seen before. sentences 11.8%errors and pix 1.5% errors.

standing had a 17% error rate after studying 10,000 pictures.
How do Mandler and Ritchey(1977)show that pictures were remembered?
Remember an interpretation of the picture similar to remembering the meaning of a sentence.
Recognized orig picture 70% of time
Rejected token changes only 60% of time
Rejected type distractors that changed meaning 94% of time
What study used "droodles" to show that memory for pictures is tied to interpretation?
Bower,Karlin, & Dueck, 1975
Some had caption and some did not
Subjects with labels first time were 70% correct
Subjects w/o labels first time were
51% correct
What was the result of Anderson's 1974 Verbal experiment
subjects tested immediately and at 2 min delay
Logical test 98% no delay 96% delay
Exact sentence 99% no delay 56% delay
How do you represent meaning?
Proposition is simplest unit of though

A propositional network is a set of interconected propositions which represents the relations among facts

frames and schemas represent stereotypical info like birds lay eggs and fly

Semantic network is a network that defines the meaning of concepts. A teacher is...
What is the evidence for propositional representations?
Given sentences with the same number of words, subjects have more trouble remembering those with more propositions. (Kintsch and Glass, 1974)

People confuse sentences with same propositions (Sachs, 1967)
What did Weisberg (1969) show?
Subject who learned experiments were then cued for a word association test and remembered the words that were closer in the propositional network not closer in the sentence
What did the Collins and Quillian (1969) experiment say about encoding conceptual information?
facts are stored with their concepts in proportion to the frequency that they are encountered. The stronger the association the faster the retrieval/verification (Can canaries sing? vs Do canaries have skin?)

Verfitying facts that aren't associated with a concept takes longer
Compare and contrast frames and schemas.
The terms are interchangeable. They capture the approx nature of our knowledge about concepts. They represent stereotypical info, define general properties, specify default values, and abstract away from details

Schemas can aid in comprehension, organize info, and aid in retrieval(activation flows from objects through schemas to other objects)
What is an event frame?
A script
How are frames organized?
Class hierarchy with a numjber of slots, each slot has one or more values and a value can be another frame

Subclasses inherit lots, values, and default values but a subclass can add additional slots and override inherited values (Penquin subclass will override "can fly".
What did Rosch, 1973 prove about the degree of category membership?
THe more central/typical the conditions are to the category, the more quickly we can retrieve that info.
Is it a bird? robin vs chicken
What experiment proved we do better at remembering things that are typical?
1.Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Brought into office for 35 sec and then taken out and asked to remember everything he could about room.
Subjects also falsely remembered things they expected as a part of a typical office, even though they were not in the office they saw.
What study proved we make judgments about what category something belongs in much more quickly if the instance is typical?
ROsch (1975 )
Overall when people think of a category member they think of a typical instance.
Who studied the idea of category boundaries?
Labov, 1973
all different sizes and shapes of cups were shown. What makes a cup, a cup?
What is necessary and sufficient?
Compare abstraction and instance theory.
Abstraction--general properties are abstracted from instances
Instance theories--specific instances of categories are stored and category membership is judged based on the average difference from these instances.

knowledge coded in the association with more abstraction per prof
Logan researched this area.
What was the neural network approach to concepts (Gluck and Bower)?
Temporal lobe damage--deficit in knowledge of biological categories (associated with perceptual)

Frontoparietal damage--deficit in knowledge of artifacts (associated with function)
What is memory?
The ability to recollect past events and bring learned facts and ideas back to mind.
Major issues:
1.Memory influences behavior in different ways for different types of memory.
2.Neural mechanism-how memory is stored
Describe Ebbinghaus (1885)
Used himself as subject.
Learned series of nonsense syllables until he recalled twice perfectly
Then retested at 20 min, 1 hr, 9 hrs, 1 day, 6 days. Retention was expressed as % of time saved relearning. Rate of forgetting rapid at first (Power law of forgetting)

He also tested over learning by rehersing it an additional 36 times once he had two perfect recitals.
After 24 hours with overlearning 64% savings compared to 33.8% without over learning.
COmpare STM and LTM
STMlimited to 7 +- 2 chunks

STM decay or overload
LTM decay or inteference

STM code matters
LTM content matters
What is the out-of-date but classic 3 stage memory theory?

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
The probablility of transfer to LTM increases with # of rehearsals
What it the memory span?
Number of elements one can immediately repeat back (at one time thought to be the limit of STM
Which experiments supported role of rehearsal and which did not?
Rundus (1971)-longer rehearsal better recall

Glennber, Smith, and Green (1977)and Craik and Watkins (1973) both found no connection between rehearsal and recall.
What it the depth of processing theory?
Very influential theory. Craik and Lockhart (1972) argued that memory improves only if the material is rehearsed in a deep meaningful way. Passive rehearsal does NOT improve memory.
Level of processing improves down this list:
What is the evidence for coding differences in STM and LTM?
Kintsch and Buschke (1969)16 words presented visually one every 2 sec. subjects were verbally given one word and asked to recall the word that followed. They found words at beginning of list showed semantic inteference and words at the end showed auditory inteference.
How does memory move from STM to LTM
Either through rehearsal or directly from sensory stores
What is working memory?
Window of the mind
Info currently available for working on a problem:
Sensory buffers
rehearsal loops
active LTM
What is sensory memory?
Holds perceptual info until it is encoded into a more permanent form.
Visual sensory--1 sec
Auditory sensory <5 sec
What are two rehearsal systems?
Visuospatial scratchpad and phonological loop (Baddeley, 1986)

ploop can hold what can be rehearsed in 2 sec,depends on spoken length not # of syllables
How does Baddeley's Theory of working memory differ from STM
Baddely replaced STM with sensory and rehearsal loops. (now in mainstream research)
He believed the central executive had its own memory store and both put and retrieved info into/from each system as well as translating info from one to another.
He believed that Info did not need to spend time in the loop to enter LTM
Explain the connection between the frontal cortex and types of info and working memory
Different regions of frontal cortex involved in remembering shapes

Different regions of frontal cortex responsobile for remembering different types of info (Goldman-Rakic, 1992)

In humans there are different regions for verbal (area 8) and visual (area 47) information.

Monkeys with lesions in frontal cortex and infants with immature frontal cortices cannot perform working memory tasks.
How does activation relate to LTM?
ctivation determines the probability and rate of access from LTM
Info you think about is active, and activation decreases rapidly with time

Loftus, 1974 noted use of category increased its activation but that activation falls off over time. Ask for a fruit beginning with p then a fruit starting with another letter.
retrieval times increased with each intervening item.
What factors can affect activation?
amount of practice and recency of use

Anderson (1976) showed recency and amount of study speed retrieval but amount of study had little effect at short retention intervals
What's the probable explanation for the priming effect?
activation spreads along the paths of the memory network (e.g. propositional network)
Discuss experiments on the priming effect.
Associative priming
dog primes bone
gambler does not prime bone
Perlmutter and Anderson (unpublished)

Mehyer and Schvaneveldt (1971) studied pairs that were related and unrelated for associative priming effects

Ratcliff and McKoon (1981) illustrated speed of spreading activation and the effect of priming at different delay intervals
What is the power law of learning
Newell feels it not fact or theory but law in Psych just like law of forgetting. recogntion time goes down with practice rapidly at first and then more slowly log linear relationship
What is long term potentiation?
LTP increased sensitivity of cells along a stimulated neural pathway, follows a power law.
What factors influence memory?
Ellaborative processing
Anderson adn Bower (1972)
with elab 72% correct
w/o elab 57% correct

type of elab matters
self generated (Slamecka & Graf, 1978)and precise are best
remember more if read upside down (Kolers, 1979)
Does intention affect memory?
No (Hyde and Jenkins, 1973)
What is PQ4R?
Method for studying textual material
Preview-general topics and sections
Questions-make up
Read-carefully trying to answer ?s
Reflect-try to understand/give examples
Review-mentally try to recall main points and answer ?s you made
What are flashbulb memories?
Important memories that "burn" themselves into our memories forever.
traumatic/personal consequences
What is the self-reference effect?
people remember more about information that refers to themselves
Kirker (1977)
Greenwalkd and Banjeri (1989) showed better memory for words related to friends.
Are their neural correlates of encoding?
Hippocampal activity at study may predict retention.

Better memory for itrmes that receive stronger brain processing at study.
what are two types of working memory?
semantic-meaning w/o assoc time & place
episodic--meaning w/ assoc time & place
What evidence that forgotten memories exist?
Nelswon, 1971
Learned 20 number-noun pairs
retested at 2 weeks and recalled 75%
Shown pairs again with some seeing changed pairs and some unchanged pairs
78% of unchnaged items were correctly recalled
43% of changed items recalled
Is there a difference in the Retention curve for STM and LTM?
Wickelgreen, 1975
log linear function of delay
What are the theories of forgetting?

Interference experiments indicate it's difficult to remember multiple associations to same stimuli unless they are redundant
what is the fan effect?
Anderson, 1974 memorize people in places some only 1 connection other multiple

the fan effect states that given a stimulus activagtion spreads and is divided amongst all its associates.(the more associates, the less activation is spread to each one.
Discuss inference
Sulin and Dooling (1974) Carol Harris or helen Keller paragraph. Did sentence deaf dumb and blind appear (plausible retrieval)

People have difficulty separating what they experience fronm what they infer (or hear or imagine(COnsider eye witness testimony and recovered childhood memories.
What improves memory
Semantic elaboration

Method of Loci-assoc each item with a position in a known route.

Contextual effect--same learning and retreival context

same mood(Teasdale & Russel, 1983)

same emotional state (Eich, Weingartner, Stillman & Gillin 1975)

Encoding specificity (Tulving) recall in same context can actually be better than recogntion in a different context
What is the association betw/ amnesia and the hippocampus?
It's important for forming new memories esp associations
Difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia
Retrograde amnesia loss of memories before damage

Anterograde amnesia inability to learn new things
What is the pattern of amnesia recovery?
Barbizet, 1970

The time of loss gets smaller and closer to the injury.
Experiments about implicit memory
Berry and Broadbent (1984) sugar plantation control

Jacobs, 1983 implicit vs explict memory in normal subjects
Compare declarative and procedural knowledge
Declarative is explicit knowledge that we can consciously recall and report

Procedural knowledge is how to do things (often implicit) type, ride a bike

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