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#4----1 to 48 --------------- Flash Cards from website A & P Chapter 2


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10 of 48
Chemical substance having two or more different elements in fixed ratio.
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Sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide;for example, maltose.
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See deoxyribonucleic acid
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Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
fatty acid
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Blood sugar that is broken down in cells to acquire energy for ATP production.
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Genetic defect marked by abnormal hands and feet, slow growth, and mental retardation, due to three copies of chromosome 18.
Edward syndrome
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Any substance that ionizes and conducts electricity;electrolytes are present in the body fluids and tissues.
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Breaking of a chemical bond such that ions are released.
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The simplest of substances, consisting of only one type of atom (for example, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen).
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Protein catalyst that speeds up a specific reaction or a specific type of reaction.
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Inability to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream;predisposes individual to heart attack.
familial hypercholesterolemia
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Organic molecule that the body uses for long-term energy storage.
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Three-carbon molecule that joins with fatty acids to form fat.
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Chemical attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.
ionic bond
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Polysaccharide that is the principal storage compound for sugar in animals.
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Abnormally low amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin, due to a lack of iron in the diet.
iron deficiency anemia
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Group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water-notably, fats, oils, and steroids.
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Smallest quantity of a substance that retains its chemical properties.
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One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number that differs in the number of neutrons and, therefore, in weight.
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Weak attraction between a partially positive hydrogen and a partially negative oxygen or nitrogen some distance away, found in proteins and nucleic acids.
hydrogen bond
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Splitting of a bond by the addition of water.
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Elevated blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure.
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A charged atom.
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Simple sugar;a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis.
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Large organic molecule found in the nucleus (DNA and RNA) and cytoplasm (RNA).
nucleic acid
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Bond that joins two amino acids.
peptide bond
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Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration;any pH below 7 is acidic, and any pH above 7 is basic.
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Carbohydrate composed of many bonded glucose units-for example, glycogen.
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Macromolecule composed of amino acids.
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Atom whose nucleus undergoes degeneration and in the process gives off radiation.
radioactive isotope
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Nucleic acid that helps DNA in protein systhesis.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
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See ribonucleic acid.
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Lipid-soluble, biologically active molecules having four interlocking rings;examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.
48 of 48
To build up, such as the combining together of two small molecules to form a larger molecule.
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Solution in which pH is more than 7;a substance that contributes or liberates hydroxide ions in a solution;alkaline;opposite of acid.
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Substance or compound that prevents large changes in the pH of a solution.
1 of 48 Solution in which pH is less than 7;substance that contributes or liberates hydrogen ions in a solution;opposite of base
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Excessive accumulation of acids in body fluids.
3 of 48
Molecule used by cells when energy is needed.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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Excessive accumulation of bases in body fluids.
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Unit of protein that takes its name from the fact that it contains an amino group (-NH2){subscript 2}[I cannot figure out how to use subscript] and an acid group (-COOH).
amino acid
6 of 48 See adenosine triphosphate.
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Organic compounds with the general formula (CH2{subscript 2}0)n1{ss:n1}[I cannot figure out how to make subscript yet] including sugars and glycogen.
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Chemical change resulting in the covalent bonding of two monomers with the accompanying loss of a water molecule.
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Chemical bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms.
covalent bond
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Nucleic acid;the genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell.
deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA)
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Condition characterized by an abnormally large production of urine, due to a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone.
diabetes insipidus
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Condition characterized by a high blood glucose level and the appearance of glucose in the urine, due to a dificiency of insulin.
diabetes mellitus
Substances that accept (react with) hydrogen ions or protons
Substances that yield hydrogen ions or protons in solution.
Definition of "accept" i.e. Substances that accept hydrogen ions or protons.
react with

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