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Ch 6. Structure of Bone


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List the functions of bone tissue
Assist in movement
Mineral homeostasis
Blood cell production
Triglyceride storage
What type of tissues make up the skeletal system?
Bone or osseous tissue
Dense connective tissues
Adipose tissue
Nervous tissue
What makes up red bone marrow?
Consists of:
1. developing blood cells
2. adipocytes
3. fibroblasts
3. macrophages
Red bone marrow is present in which bones?
1.Developing bones of the fetus
2.Adult bones of pelvis, ribs, breastbone, backbones, skull and ends of the arm bones & thighs
List parts of the long bone
1. Diaphysis
2. Epiphyses
3. Metaphyses
4. Epiphyseal plate
4. Articular cartilage
5. Periosteum
6. Medullary cavity/marrow carity
7. Endosteum
Where is yellow bone marrow found?
Medullary cavity of the diaphysis
What is yellow bone marrow made of?
Adipose cells (which store triglycerides and a few blood cells.
Yellow bone marrow stores adipose cells for what function?
Chemical energy reserve
Which bones parts store red bone marrow?
Spongy epiphysis and Metaphysis contain red bone marrow
The intracellular materials that surround the bone consists of what?
Water 25%
Collagen fibers 25%
Crystallized Mineral salts 50%
Small amounts of Magnesium hydroxide, fluoride & sulfate
Describe the process of calcification
Mineral salts get deposited in collagen fibers of the bone matrix, they crystallize and tissue hardens
The process of calcification/mineralization is initiated by what?
Osteoblasts....the bone-building cells
Bone hardness depends on what?
Crystallized inorganic mineral salts
Bones flexibility depends on what?
Collagen fibers
Histological features of bone tissue are what?
1. Osteogenic cells
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts
Osteogenic cells undergo ______ _______ and develop into _____________ which secrete ________ ___________.
Cell division
Bone matrix
Which bone cells undergo cell division?
Osteogenic cells
Found along the inner portion of the periosteum, in the endosteum, and in the canals w/in bone that contain blood vessels
Daughter cells of osteogenic cells develop into what?
Osteoblasts build what?
What do osteoblasts do?
Synthesize & secrete collagen fibers & organic components to build bone matrix, and initiate calcification
What happens when osteoblasts surround themselves w/matrix?
They beome trapped and become osteocytes
What are osteocytes
Mature bone cells
What do Osteocytes do?
Maintain the tissue (exchange of nutrients & wastes with the blood)
What are osteoclasts?
Large white blood cells that are concentrated in the endosteum
What do osteoclasts do?
Releases lysomal enzymes & acids that digest protein and mineral components of the bone matrix. (resorption)
What is resorption?
Breakdown oof bone matrix...the normal development, growth, maintenance and repair of bone
Blasts secrete matrix
Cytes maintain tissue
Clasts break down matrix
Why is bone resorption important?
It is part of the normal development, growth, maintenance, and repair of bone
What is compact bone tissue?
Forms external layer of bones, is the bulk of diaphyses of long bones. Protects & supports, resists stresses of weight/movement
What makes up the blood and nerve supply of bone?
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessles, and nerves from the periosteum penetrate the compact bone through transverse perforating (Volkmann's) canals.
Compact bone tissue contains osteons
Spongy bone tissue DOES NOT contain osteons.
Why is bone considered a connective tissue?
Because they contain a matrix of intercellular materials that surround widely separated cells
What are the four types of cells found in bone tissue?
Osteogenic cells
What is the composition of the matrix of bone tissue?
Abundant mineral salts (mostly hydroxyapatite) and collagen fibers

Compact bone tissue consists of osteons with little space between them
Compact bone tissue lies over spongy bone tissue in the epiphyses and makes up most of the bone tissue of the diaphysis.

Functionally, compact bone tissue protects, supports, and resists stress
Spongy bone tissue does not contain osteons. It consists of trabeculae surrounding many red bone
marrow- filled spaces.
Spongy bone tissue forms most of the structure of short, flat, and irregular bones, and the epiphyses of long bones.
Functionally, spongy bone tissue trabeculae offer resistance along lines of stress, support and protect red bone marrow, and make bones lighter for easier movement.
The Periosteum contains bone-forming cells that enable bone to grow in diameter or thickness, but NOT in length.
The diaphysis is what part of the bone?
Bone shaft or body - long, cylindrical main portion of the bone.
Epiphyses is what part of the bone?
Distal and proximal ends of the bone
The metaphyses are what part of the bone?
Regions in a mature bone where the diaphysis joins the epiphyses
What is the epiphyseal plate?
In a growing bone each metaphysis includes an epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length
What is the articular cartilage?
A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis

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