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Chem 11


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how close numbers are to each other
how close numbers are to actual answer
Mass %
(mass dissolved / mass solution) x 100
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass consumed = mass produced
Law of Definate Proportions
mass ratios of elements in a compound are fixed
Law of Multiple Proportions
If 2 elements combine to form more than one product, mass of one element will be a fixed mass while the other element differs by an integer ratio
Summary (3 parts) Dalton's Theory of Atoms
1) All matter is made up of tiny, invisible, and indivisible particles
2)There are different kinds of atoms that are distinguished by their masses
3)atoms combine in integer ratios to form compounds
Evidence in support of Rutherford Model
Gold-foil experiment--small nucleus
elements with the same # of protons, different # electrons
Metals (characteristics)
left side, luster, malleable, ductile, good conductors, form cations (atoms with + charge)
Non-metals (characteristics)
right side, dull, brittle, bad conductors, form anions (- charged)
Metalliods (characteristics)
jagged line, Se,Ge,As etc., intermediate properties
What makes up a Chemical Formula?
a)type of atoms present
Emperical Formula
relative # of atoms formed

(1 C for ever 2 H)
Molecular Formula
actual # atoms in molecule

(2 C and 4 H)
Ionic molecules
contain large networks of cations and anions

ex. NaCl
m (g) / V (L)
Determine Chemical Formula?
(given molecules/mass)
1) convert mass to grams
2)divide by lowest choice to get an integer
3)place integer as coefficient
Find Molecular Formula?
(given imperical formula)
1) given mass/mass of compound=integer
2) multiply coefficients by integer
Oxidation #'s
e- gained or lost in rxn
Naming Ionic Compounds
1)monatomic=no change in name
2)monatomic + transition metal= transition metal(#) ---ide
Naming Binary Compounds
1)Acics (H + NM)= Hydrogen ---ide
2)NM + NM = use prefix (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta)
Limiting Reactants
1)Given 2 masses
2)Use stoicheometry to find masses of products given by both
3)element that produces the least product is limiting
% Yeild
observed mass/actual mass x 100
Strong electrolytes
good conductors of electricity, dissociate into ions
Weak electrolytes
moderate conductors b/c they do not compleatly dissociate
non-conductors, Do not dissociate
What make up strong electolytes?
usually ionic compouns (M + NM)
What makes up weak electolytes?
usually molecular compounds (NM + NM)
Precipitation RxN
forms a solid
Acid/Base RxN
substance produce H+ in water, react with bases
Strong Acid + Srong Base
H+ + OH- = h2o
How to balance redox rxn
a)balance atoms other than water
b)balance o2 with h2o
c)balance H with H+
d)balance charge with e-
equivalence point
point in titration where A is completly consumed by B
As pressure increases--volume?
as T increases, volume
as moles increase, volume
Ideal Gas Law
Kinetic Theroy of Gases (3 parts)
1)Gases have kinetic energy-no prefered direction of motion
2)Gases are compressible-distance between particles is large relative to size
3)Gases are weakly attracted to themselves-force between particles is weak
Root mean squared
square root of (3RT/u) u=speed of particles
2 ways to measure heat
1)bomb calorimeter
2)coffee cup calorimeter
mc(change in)T
heat transferred into or out of a system
Standard Enthalpy of Formation (delta Hf)
delta H for formation of 1 mol of compound from its elements
light composed of waves that interfere with each other
distance between crests/troughs of waves
velocity (of wave)
rate at which crests move
number of crests to pass a point in 1 sec
(for waves)
Electromagnetic radiation is composed of
oscillating elecric and magnetic fields
Elecromagnetic Radiation Spectrum
x-rays »» visable light »» infared »» microwaves »» radio waves
Blackbody radiation
as objects are heated they emit light
E=hv (v=frequency)
Photoelectric effect
if frequency of light is less than the threshold frequency»»e- emitted
n quantum number
1,2,3. . .
energy level
quantum number L
0, 1, 2. . .n-1
wave shape
m quantum number
-L to +L
wave orientation
e- fill orbitals in order
low E to high E
most -E, most stable
Pauli exclusion principle
every e- has a different set of quantum #s
Hun's Rule
For orbitals of identical E, the e- fills orbital w/ a single e- first
unpaired e-
radius of an atom
distance from outermost e- to nucleus
As shell # increases, size
as charge increases, size
Isoelectronic Ions
ions with the same # e-
charge increases, size decreases
Ionization Energy (definition and trend)
E need to remove an outher e-
Decreases down a column and across a period
Electron Affinity (definition and trend)
always -
attraction between e-
Increases down a column and across (left) a period
Properties of Covalent Bonds (2)
1)fewer bonds»»more reactive
2)more bonds»»shorter distance between atoms
Electronegativity (definition and trend)
tendency to attract e-
decreases down a column and across (left) a period
Electronegativy in relation to polarity of a bond
EN > 1.7 (ionic bond)
EN < 1.7 (polar covalent bond)
EN = 0 (covalent bond)
multiple bonds occupy (more/less) space than single bonds
lone pairs occupy (more/less) space then bonding e- pairs
General conclusion about dipoles in identical atoms
asymetrical arrangement of identical atoms results in a nonpolar molecule
Bond dissociation Energy
E needed to break said bond
Carboxylic Acid
C=O and -OH
sigma bonds
e- concentrated between nuclei (single bonds)
2 properties of pi bonds
1)weaker than sigma bonds
2)restricted rotation
Bond Order
quantitative strength of bond holding nuclei together
[e- in non bonding MO - e- in antibonding MO]/2
surface tension
more bonds below the surface, more stable
Heat of vaporization
E required to break intermolecular bonds in a liquid--forming a gas
Vapor Pressure (formula)
as T decreases, VP decreases
heat vap/R [(1/Ti)-(1/Tf)]
Enthalpy of fusion
E needed to weaked bonds in a solid--forming a liquid
Enthalpy of Sublimation
E required to break IM bonds in a solid
Hs= Hv + Hf
normal melting point
temp of phase transition s»»l at 1 atm pressure
Normal boiling pt
temp of phase transition from l»»g at 1 atm pressure
ppb equation
(mass solute/mass solution)x 10^9
Henry's Law
[gas]=k x P

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