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Biology Chapter 7 CRQ's continued


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41. What do Lysosomes have inside of them?
Lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes.
42. Why is the lysosome sometimes called the cell's stomach?
Because they break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, & organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
43. What happens to wornout organelles?
Lysosomes also help break down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.
44. what is the function of vacuoles?
Store material in saclike structures.
45. What does the large central vacuole do for plants?
Pressure in central vacuoles make it possible for plants to support heavy structures, such as leaves and flowers.
46. What is the function of chloroplasts?
Chloroplasts use the energy from sunlight to make energy-rich food molecules in a process know as photosynthesis.
47. What is the function of mitochondria?
Mitochondria use energy from food to make high-energy compounds that the cell can use to power growth, development, and movement.
48. Describe the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
The inner membrane, which is folded, is the place where the high-energy compounds are produced.
49. What makes mitochondria and chloroplasts somewhat different from other organelles?
Unlike other organelles, chloroplasts and mitochondria contain some of their own genetic info. in the form of DNA.
50. These two organelles are thought to be related to what?
Thought to be descendants of ancient prokaryotes.
52. Which parent did you inherit your mitochondrial DNA from?
I inherited my mitochondrial from my mom.
53. In the factory analogy, what role does the cytoskeleton play? List 2 things.
The cytoskeleton is like the steel or concrete beams and columns supporting the walls and roof of a factory building.
54. Who is the "Boss" of the cell?
The "boss" of the cell is the nucleus.
55. What information is the nucleus sending out to the other parts of the cell?
In a cell, the nucleus sends a steady stream of RNA and other information-carrying molecules to the rest of the cell.
56. What role in the factory would the Golgi Body play?
The Golgi apparatus is a bit like a factory's customization shop.
57. What two organelles are involved in energy for the plant?
2 organelles that are involved in energy for the plant: mitochondria and chloroplasts.
58. List some of the differences btw prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cells-have cell membranes but not nuclei. Eukaryotic cells-much larger than prokaryotic cells and contain nuclei. Also, contain more highly specialized organelles.
59. what are the differences in plant and animal cell organelles?
Plant cells-contain cell walls, large vacuoles & chloroplasts. Animal cells-do not have cell walls or chloroplasts.
60. What is the function of the cell membrane?
Cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
61. What is the lipid bilayer?
The lipid bilayer is a double-layered sheet.
63. What role do the carbohydrates play in the membrane?
Carbohydrates are attached to the proteins. Act as chemical identification cards allowing cells to identify one another.
64. What is a solution?
Mixture of 2 or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed.
65. What is the chemical formula for the concentration of a solution?
Formula for the concentration of a solution is the mass of solute(dissolved substance) in a given volume of solution or mass/volume.
66. If 50 grams of salt are dissolved into 5 liters of water, what is the solution's concentration?
50grams of salt/5 liters of H2O = 10g/liter <-- Concentration
67. Describe how molecules behave in solution.
In a solution, molecules are constantly moving, they collide and they tend to spread out randomly.
68. Define Diffusion. It saves the cell what?
Diffusion-molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
69. When is a solution in equilibrium?
A solution is in an equilibrium when a solute is added to a solution and concentration is the same throughout the solution.
70. Do the molecules stop moving after equilibrium is reached?
No, molecules continue to move rapidly across the membrane in both directions.
71. What does permeable and impermeable mean?
Permeable means some substances can pass across them & others cannot. Impermeable meaning that substances cannot pass through.
72. What word is used to describe the cell membrane's permeability?
Selectively permeable is used to describe the cell membrane's permeability.
73. What is osmosis?
Osmosis-diffusion of water through selectively permeable membrane.
74. What does it mean when a solution is described as isotonic?
Isotonic solution-concentration of water in the solution is the same as the cell's.
75. If a cell is surrounded by fresh water, why will it swell and burst?
It will swell and burst because cells are filled with salts, sugars, and proteins they would always be in danger of exploding if placed in fresh water. The water is hypotonic to their insides.
76. How are most cells protected from osmotic pressure?
Most cells do not come in contact with fresh water because they are bathed in fluids that are isotonic to the cells. Therefore there is no net movement of water outside the cell.
77. How are plant and bacteria cells protected from osmotic pressure?
Other cells, plant cells, bacterial cells are surrounded by a thick cell wall that allows pressure to build up inside the cell water is moving into the cell because of the difference in concentration.
62. What is the function of the proteins in the cell membrane?
Proteins run through the lipid layer; some form channels and pumps that help to move materials across the membrane.
78. What organelle do some unicellular organisms have to help them maintain homeostasis?
Single-celled organelles have a structure called a contractile vacuole that helps them to maintain homeostasis
91. What is cell specialization?
Cell specialization-separate roles for each type of cell.
79. What part of the cell membrane is involved in facilitated diffusion?
The lipid bilayer is the part of the cell membrane that is involve in facilitated diffusion.
80 Why is facilitated diffusion still diffusion?
Facilitated diffusion still diffusion because membrane proteins with channels facilitate or help the diffusion of glucose across the membrane.
81. Define active transport?
Active transportation-the energy-requiring process that moves molecules and ions across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
82. Beside the concentration differences, what else is different btw active transport and diffusion?
In Active transportation material moves from an area of low concentration to high concentration; this requires energy.
83. What is endocytosis?
Endocytosis-process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of cell membrane.
84. What can enter the cell as a result of endocytosis?
Large molecules, clumps of food, and even whole cells can be taken up by endocytosis.
85. What is phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis-process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
86. What is exocytosis?
Exocytosis-the removal of large amounts of material from a cell.
87. What can unicellular organisms do that other living things do?
Unicellular organisms do everything that you would expect a living thing to do.
88. Where are bacteria found?
Bacteria live almost everywhere-in the soil, on leaves, in the ocean, in the air, & even within the human body.
89. Give two ex. of Eukaryotes that are unicellular.
2 ex. of Eukaryotes that are unicellular: yeast and algae.
90. Describe colonial organisms.
Colonial organisms live in groups of individuals of the same species that are attached to one another but have few specialized structures.
92. What is the function of red blood cells?
Red blood cells transport oxygen throughout the body.
93. How are pancreatic cells able to produce enzymes?
Pancreatic cells are able to produce enzymes because these cells contain enormous amounts of the organelles involved in protein synthesis.
94. What does a histotechnologist do?
A histotechnologist works in a hospital laboratory, research institution, industrial laboratory, or government agency to prepare slides of body tissues for microscopic examination using special dyes and more advanced techniques.
95. What are the levels or organization in multicellular organisms?
The levels of organization in a multicellular organism are individual cells, tissues, organs, & organ systems.
96. What is Tissue? Give an ex.
A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a particular function. An. Ex. would be muscle cells make up smooth muscle tissue.
97. What does epithelial tissue do?
Epithelial tissues, such as skin, cover or line body surfaces.
98. What is an organ?
Organ-group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
99. What kinds of tissue make up a muscle?
Muscle cells make up smooth muscle tissue.
100. What is an organ system? Give some ex.
Organ system-group of organs that work together to perform a specific function. There are 11 major organ systems in the human body, including the muscular, skeletal, circulatory, and nervous system.

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