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Reproductive systems


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inner glandular layer of the inner wall of the uterus; has two parts:
1- Functional zone (innermost)
2- Basilar zone
Functional Zone of Endometrium
innermost layer; contains uterine glands and contributes to this layer's thickness. Supplied by spiral arteries
Basilar Zone of Endometrium
Outer Endometriume; connects the functional zone to the myometrium;
-Fed by straight arteries.
Bloody Supply to Uterus
Uterine Artery branches from Int. Iliac
-Gives arcuate branches in myometrium;
-Give straight and spiral branches to basilar and functional zones of endometrium.
round ligaments of the uterus
-lateral uterine sides; just inferior to base of uterine tubes (fallopian).
-pass through inguinal canal to connective tissue of external genitalia.
a musculomembranous canal from the cervix to the vestibule of external genitalia
External genitalia (5)
mons pubis
labia majora
labia minora
mons pubis
the fat pad over the pubic bone
labia majora
outer layer of tissue
labia minora
inner layer of tissue
the emale homologue of the penis
Two holes:
-a. urethral orifice
-b. vaginal orifice
and Glands:
-Vestibular glands; embedded in vaginal walls, secrete lubrication
tunica albuginea
white coat of fascia that surrounds the testes; covered by tunica vaginalis.
Fallopian (uterine) tube
permits the passage of an ovum from the peritoneal cavity to the uterus
constriction of uterus that divides the superior fundus from the inferior cervix; beginning of the fallopian tube
extends from the isthmus (off the fundus of uterus) to the infundibulum (near the end of the uterine tube).
infundibulum and fimbria
the end of the road; end of fallopian tube
broad ligament
covers the ovaries, ligaments, and uterine structures from a posterior view.
the organ in which the fertilized ovum will implant
the superior portion of the uterus
inferior portion of the uterus
recess around the circular opening of the cervix
Layers of the Uterus
serous membrane continuous with peritoneal lining; outermost layer of the uterus; connective tissue
thickest layer of the uterus; smooth muscle in its wall
paired organs located in the scrotum for a cooler environment.
tunica vaginalis
a serious membrane; double layer that covers both testes and also lines the scrotal cavity
cremaster muscle
continuous with abdominis rectus, this muscle senses temp changes to maintain the needed environment for testes. Just under the skin of the testes; covers the actual testes.
lays overtop of the testes inside scrotum; Head, Body, and tail.
Stores sperm cells until they mature.

continuous w/ vas deferens.
Seminiferous tubules
roughly 800 tightly coiled tubules in the testes; produce sperm via spermatogenesis.
interstitial cells
found between seminiferous tubules; produce testosterone.
Sertoli sustenticular cells
supporting cells of the seminiferous tubules and testes. support the process of spermatogenesis.
a stem cell becomes a spermatocyte, then a spermatid.
a Spermatid matures; becomes a spermatozoan.
The spermatozoan distaches from the wall of sustenticular cells and is released into the seminiferous tubule lumen; its now a sperm cell.
Amount of semen constituent produced by testes
spermatozoan anatomy
head, middle piece, tail
head of spermatozoan
contains the nucleus; densly packed chromosomes. also, the acrosome; contains enzymes released to break down ovocytes.
tail of spermatozoan
accessory glands of male reprod. system
seminal vesicle
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland
vas deferens
-begins at epididymus tail; runs up into abdominal cavity through inguinal canal; part of spermatic cord.
-Loops over the bladder to the seminal vesicle.
seminal vesicle
empties its contents, 60% of semen, into the junction of the vas deferens ampulla at the start of the ejaculatory duct.
prostate gland
constitutes 30% of semen
bulbourethral gland
contributes 5% of semen
Structure of Urethra
3 parts:
Prostatic Urethra
Behind/under the bladder, where ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle ducts join to flow into the prostatic urethra.
male organ serving reproductive and urinary function
external urethral meatus
opening of penis
corpora cavernosa
two cavernous bodies; columns of erectile tissue that extend the length of the top of the penis; function in erection.
corpus spongiosum
erectile tissue, but this surrounds the penile urethra, under the corpora cavernosa. During erection these squeeze the urethra shut so urine is not ejected along with semen.
Inguinal canals.
links the scrotum to the peritoneal cavity. Spermatic cord passes through it from superficial ring to internal. A weakening in the abdominal fascia, can result in hernias.
Superficial inguinal ring
where the spermatic cord exits from peritoneal cavity and internal ring via inguinal canal to testes.
Spermatic cords (5 contents)
passes from internal inguinal ring to superficial via inguinal canal; contains
-Testicular artery/vein
-Vas Deferens
-Pampiniform Plexus of veins
-Iliohypogastral/Genitofemoral Nerves.
-Lympathic vessels
Ovarian ligamnt
connects the ovaries to the uterus
suspensory ligament
connects the ovaries to the abdominal wall and superiorly; contains the ovarian artery/vein

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