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The Skull


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genoid tubercle
on the inside of the front of the mandible; insertion of the genial hyoid that moves in phonation and swallowing.
mastoid process
on the temporal bone; a convex protrustion that is the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid. contains air cells or sinuses.
zygomatic arch
2 pieces, one from the zygomatic process and one from the temporal process. the mandible articulates at each process.
2; bat-shaped bone that articulates with practically everything inside the head; transversely extends
Neurocranium bones
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
frontal bone
1; in the front, seperated from the parietal bone by the sagittal suture
2; back top of skull; seperated from the frontal bone by the coronal suture; both parietals are seperated by the transverse suture; the back of it is seperated from the occipital bone by the lambdoid suture
2; on either side of the skull below the parietal and posterior to the frontal; seperated from the parietal by the squamous sutures
at the base of the skull
palatine processes
actually part of the maxilla bone, the anterior 2/3 of the palatine plate.
occipital condyle
condyle on the occipital bone, which sits on the first cervical vertebrae, the axis.
the bump on the base of the posterior skull which articulates with the atlas; aka the external occipital protuberance. (there are two on either side of the foramen magnum.
horizontal palatine plate
part of the palatine. hte posterior 1/3 of the plate.
paranasal sinuses
4 Looking from anterior view:
frontal - above the eye sockets
ethmoid - just inferior to that
sphenoidal - posterior and inferior yet
maxillary - either side of the nose, under the eye sockets
carotid canal
just anterior and lateral to the occipital condyle; the carotid artery runs through it
foramen magnum
gigantic hold in the back of the head; the brain stem/blood vessels go through it. in the occipital bone
jugular foramen
still lateral to the occipital condyles, but posterior to the carotid canal
internal acoustic meatus
a little anterior to the jugular foramen, but much smaller than the carotid canals which are also anterior to the jugular foramen.
external acoustic meatus
aka external auditory meatus; on outside of temporal bone, surrounds the entry to the tympanic canal.
jaw, below the mouth
mandibular rami
extends up posteriorly and superiorly
mandibular body
supports the teth and meets the ramus at the angle
condyloid process
on the mandible, extends to the head which articulates with the mandibular fossae of temporal bone - TMJ
coronoid processes
insertion of the temporalis muscle; extends up right behind the back teeth, where it hides behind the zygomatic arch when the mouth is closed; the insertion of pterygoid muscle
mandibular foramen
near the posterior/superior end of the inside of the mandible, just behind the teeth but under the coronoid process; AT the start of the rami. passage of blood vessels/nerves to lower teeth (inject here for numbing)
mental foramen
in the front of the jaw; passageway for sensory nerves to the chin
supra/infraorbital foramen
supraorbital = actually a notch over the superior eye socket in skull

infraorbital = in the maxilla inferior to the eye socket
Both are for sensory nerves
optic foramen
aka optic canal
on the medial side of the eye socket, back in there where its hard to see. actually on the anterior/superior part of the sphenoid bone by the sella turcica.
foramen rotundum
on the sphenoid; anterior, on either side of sella turcica.(where the feet would go in the front) very small hole
foramen ovale
on the sphenoid; on either side of sella turcica; biggest holes there, very oval-like.
foramen lacerum
on the sphenoid, on either side of sella turcica, but barely because it makes the posterior border of the edge of the sphenoid bone next to temporal. not regularly-shaped, kind've lacerated.
mandibular fossa
on the temporal bone; articulates with the mandibular condyle to form the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which is condyloid
lateral/medial pterygoid plates, fossa
plates are on either side of the fossa, all of which are directly posterior to the last tooth socket. All on the sphenoid bone.
styloid process
piece of the temporal bone; very thin and breaks off easily. projects anteriorly and inferiorly. is the origin of the hyoid bone by the pharynx, aids in speech.
facial bones
2 zygomatic, 2 maxilla, 2 palatine, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 inferior nasal concha; 1 vomer and 1 mandible.
zygomatic bones
the lateral surface of the eye socket
above the mouth and on side of nose
roof of the pallet of the mouth
medial border of the eye socket but deeper than the nasal bones, looking at it anteriorly
superior to the sphenoid, can't see from the front; saddle-shaped
at the bridge of nose
inferior nasal concha
scrolls inside the nose on either side of the vomer; provide eddies of air for better humidification, etc.
midline of the nasal cavity, lower than the sagittal plate of the ethmoid
Sutures of the skull
coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, squamosal
coronal suture
between frontal bone from parietal bone
sagittal suture
seperates the two parietal bones
lambdoidal suture
seperates the occippital bone from the parietals
seperates the temporal bones from the parietals
frontal crest
crest on the frontal bone
crista galli
crest on the ethmoid that droops down to form the cribiform plate
cribiform plate
a continuation of the crista galli on the ethmoid; it's perforated for nerves that percieve smell
sella turcica
the turkish saddle, anterior superior portion of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland
cranial fossae
anterior = frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
middle = sphenoid, temporal
posterior = temporal, occipital
anterior cranial fossae
frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid
middle cranial fossae
parietal, temporal
posterior cranial fossae
occipital, temporal
petrous ridge
the hardest bone in the body; on the petrous part, the most massive portion of the temporal bone that protecs the hearing/balance sense organs
the top of the skull

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