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Muscles of the Head and Neck


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Muscles of Facial expression
orbicularis oculi/oris, zygomaticus major, buccinator, frontalis, occipitalis
orbicularis oculi
closes the eyes tightly
orbicularis oris
puckers lips; kissing muscle
zygomaticus major
pulls the angle of the mouth into a smile
puts mouth into position for blowing; brings the cheeks in
originates from the anterior frontal border of the galae aponeurotica; raises the eyebrows
attaches to the galea aponeurotica, wiggles the ears
galea aponeurotica
connective tissue over the top of the head
muscles of mastication
all innervated by mandibular branch (V3) of CN V
Masseter, Temporalis, Lateral/medial pterygoid
origin: Zygomatic arch
insertion: Mandible at its angle
action: Elevates the mouth
origin: Temporal bone
insertion: Tendon goes behind zygomatic arch, inserts onto coronoid process
action: Allows mandible to eleveate and retract (from jutting pulls it back)
Lateral Pterygoid
origin: lateral side of the lateral Pterygoid plate
Insertion: top part of mandible, the condyloid process of the mandible.
Action: depresses the mandible, opens the mouth; and protracts the mandible, jutting it forward.
Medial Pterygoid
origin: lateral pterygoid process, medial side
insertion: mandible angle from medial side, beneath masseter. forms sling around mandible angle
action: elevates the mandible, moves from side/side.
Muscles of the Neck
Sternocleidomastoid, Suprahoid 4, INfrahyoid 4
origin: sternum/clavicle
insertion: occipital bone, mastoid process
action: rotates head to opposite side
nerve: 11th CN
Suprahyoid muscles
All shift the hyoid to aid in speech and swallowing
Mylohyoid - floor of mouth
Digastric, anterior belly
Digastric, posterior belly
Geniohyoid - inserts on inside mandible
infrahyoid muscles
All act on the hyoid from below.

Hyoid Muscles (infra and supra)
Elevate, Depress, protract, and retract the hyoid bone. Aid in phonation and swallowing. Innervated by CN V, VII and XII, and C1-3
Mandible Movements
Depression: opening
Protraction: jutting the teeth out
Retraction: bringing the jaw back in

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