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Muscles of the Upper Extremity


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origin: ligamentum nuchae, spines of thoracic vertebra T1-T12
insertion: spine of scapula, acromium process, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
action: Elevation, retraction of scapula
nerve: Spinal accessory
Levator Scapulae
origin: Transverse processes of C1-C4
insertion: Medial border of Scapula
action: Elevation
nerve: Dorsal Scapular
Minor Rhomboid
origin: Spinu processes of C7-T1
insertion: Medial border of scapula
action: Scapular retraction
nerve: Dorsal Scapular
Serratus anterior
origin: Lateral part of ribs 1-8
insertion: medial border of scapula
action: Scapular protraction (in front)
nerve: Long thoracic nerve
Roses are red, violets are blue, the long thoracic nerve goes to the serratus anterior
Rhomboid major
Origin: spinous process of T2-T5
Insertion: Medial border of Scapula
action: Scapular Retraction
nerve: Dorsal Scapular
Pectoralis Minor
origin: Ribs 3-5
insertion: Corocoid process
action: Protraction
nerve: Medial Pectoral Nerve
Pectoralis major
origin: Medial 2/3 of clavicle, most of sternum.
insertion: Greater tubercle
action: shoulder flexion, adduction, inernal rotation.
nerve; Medial/Lateral Pectoral nerves.
Latissimus dorsi
Origin: Spinous Processes of T6-T12
Insertion: Floor of Biccipital groove
Action: Addution, Extension, Internal Rotation of shoulder
Nerve; Thoracodorsal
Origin: Scapular Spine, acromium process, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
insertion: Deltoid tuberostiy on humerus
Anterior action: flexion and internal rotation of shoulder
Middle action: Abduction
Posterior action: Extension, external rotations
nerve: Axillary
origin: Subscapular fossa
insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus
action: internal rotation
nerve: upper/lower subscapular nerves
origin: supraspinous fossa
insertion: Greater tubercle
action: weak abduction
nerve; suprascapular
origin: infraspinous fossa
insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
action: external rotation
nerve; suprascapular nerve
teres minor
lateral border of scapula
greater tubercle
external rotation of shoulder
axillary nerve (also supplies deltoid)
teres major
origin: inferior scapula
insertion: lesser tubercle
action: internal rotation of upper extremity, counterposes teres minor/infraspinatus
nerve: lower subscapulary nerve
origin: coracoid process
insertion: medial border of humerus, the Brachium
action: flexion, adduction of shoulder
nerve: musculocutaneous
biceps brachii longhead
origin: supraglenoid tubercle, at top of glenoid fossa
insertion: radial tuberosity
aciton: weak shoulder flexion, flexion/supination of elbow, forearm
nerve; musculocutaneous
biceps brachii shorthead
origin: coracoid process
insertion: radial tuberosity
action: flexion/supination of elbow and forearm
nerve: musculocutaneous
origin: lower 1/2 of humerus
insertion: ulnar tuberosity
action: flexion of elbow
nerve: musculocutaneous
triceps brachii (long head)
origin: infraglenoid tubercle
insertion: triceps tendon, at olecranon process
action: elbow/shoulder extension
nerve: radial
triceps brachii lateral head
origin: upper posterior humerus surface
insertion: triceps tendon, olecranon process
action: elbow/shoulder extension
nerve: radial
triceps brachii medial head
origin: lower posterior humerus
insertion: triceps tendon, olecranon
action: shoulder/elbow extension
nerve: radial
lateral humeral epicondyle
olecranon process
weak extension of elbow
radial nerve
superficial anterior forearm muscles
pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis
deep anterior forearm muscles
flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, pronator quadratus
muscles attachnig the axial skeleton to the shoulder girdle
trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids minor/major, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor
Muscles inserting on the humerus
pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teris minor/major
Anterior muscles of the arm
Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii long/shortheads, brachialis
Posterior muscles of the arm
triceps brachii lateral, medial, and longheads; anconeus
pronator teres
action: pronates forearm
nerve: median nerve

origin: medial humeral epicondyle
insertion: radius
Flexor carpi radialis
action: flexion/abduction of wrist, aka radial deviation
nerve: median nerve

origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
insertion: carpal bones
Palmaris longus
15% of people don't have it
Action: Weak wrist flexion
nerve: Median
Flexor carpi ulnaris
action: wrist flextion, adduction - ulnar deviation
Flexor digitorum superficialis
action: digit/wrist flexion
nerve: median nerve

inserts on digit 2-5 tendons
Flexor pollicis longus
action: pollex flexion, wrist/thumb flexion
nerve: median
flexor digitorum profundus
deeply profound
action: wrist/all digit flexion; it pulls on the tendons of fingers
nerve to radial half: median digits 1-2
nerve to medial half: ulnar, digits 4-5
Pronator quadratus
action: pronates forearm
nerve: median nerve
action: elbow flexion
nerve; radial

origin: lateral epicondyle
insertion: brachium
extensor carpi radialis longus/brevis
action: wrist extension/abduction
nerve; radial
extensor digitorum
action: extends digits 2-5 and wrist
nerve; radial
extensor digiti minimi
action: extends digit 5 and wrist
nerve: radial
extensor carpi ulnaris
action: extends wrist/ulnar deviation (adduction)
nerve: radial
Abductor pollicis longus
action: abduction/extension of thumb
nerve: radial
Extensor pollicis brevis
action: extends thumb
nerve: radial
extensor pollicis longus
action: extends thumb
nerve: radial
extensor indicis
action: index/1st digit extension
nerve: radial
supinates lower arm
radial nerve
thenar (lateral) muscles of the hand
abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, adductor pollicis

abductor pollicis brevis
action; thumb abduction
nerve: median
flexor pollicis brevis
action: thumb flexion
nerve; median
opponens pollicis
action: thumb flexion/abduction
nerve: median
adductor pollicis
action: thumb adduction
1/2: Median nerve
1/2: ulnar nerve
Hypothenar muscles of the hand
Medial group. Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponenes digiti minimi
abductor digiti minimi
action: abducts pinkie
nerve; ulnar
flexor digiti minimi brevis
action: pinkie flexion
nerve: ulnar
opponens digiti minimi
action: flexion/abduction of pinkie
nerv: ulnar
action: flexion of metacarpalphalangeal joints 2-5, extension of interphalangeal joints
nerve (1-2): median
nerve (3-4): ulnar
Interosseous muscles
4 dorsal and 3 palmar
dorsal interossei
action: abduction of digits
nerve: ulnar

muscle 1 inserts on digit 2
muscle 2 inserts on digit 3
muscle 3 inserts on digit 4
muscle 4 inserts on digit 5
palmar interossei
action: digit adduction 2, 4 and 5
nerve: ulnar

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