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Pectoral girdle and upper limb


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Appendicular skeleton
bones of the upper and lower limbs and the supporting elements that connect them
Pectoral girdle
where each arm articulates with the trunk. Consists of the clavicle and scapula.
Articulates medially with the manubrium, laterally with acromion process. A fibrous, syndesmosis joint.
Sternoclavicular joint
between the sternam and the clavicle; a gliding joint between the upper limb and axial skeleton that limits shoulder movement
2 borders: vertebral/medial, axillary armpit
2 angles: superior/inferior
2 processes: acromion, coracoid
1 spine
4 fossae: subscapular, infraspinous, supraspinous (for muscles), glenoid for articulation w/ humerus.
Motions of the scapula
elevation, depression, protracction, retraction, rotation.
coracoid process
anterior projection of scapula over the glenoid fossa; attachment site for biceps brachii
annular ligament
at the elbow; binds the proximal radial head to the ulna. prevents forward displacement of the radial head.
acromion process
larger, posterior process on the scapula; attachment of trapezius muscle. articulates w/ clavicle at acromioclavicular joint.
supra/infraglenoid tubercles
above and below the glenoid fossa; supra is part origin of biceps brachii, infra is part origin of triceps brachii.
Humerus head
smooth, round superior medial portion of the proximal epiphysis, articulates with scapula at glenoid cavity.
greater tubercle of humerus
lateral superior portion of epiphysis; the most lateral palpatable portion of shoulder. attachment site of 3 muscles from scapula: supra/infraspinatus, and teres minor.
lesser tubercle of the humerus
anterior/medial surface of epiphysis. insertion point of subscapularis
intertubercular/bicipital groove
seperates the greater/lesser tubercles of the humerus; biceps brachii tendon runs runs along it.
anatomical neck of humerus
constriction inferior to the head of humerus; not what we wrap our hand around, but marks the limit of the articular capsule at glenoid joint.
surgical neck
metaphysis of the bone, reflects the fact that fractures commonly occur here.
deltoid tuberosity
runs along the lateral border of the humerus shaft, more than 1/2way down it. deltoid muscle attaches here.
condyle of humerus
dominates the distal inferior surface of humerus; divided into trochlea and capitulum
medial portion of humeral condyle; articulates with the ulna on the medial forearm.
coronoid fossa
on anterior surface of humerus, right above the condyle; accepts projection from ulnar surface as elbow flexes.
olecranon fossa
above the trochlea on posterior surface of the humeral condyle; accepts projection of ulna in full extension.
capitulum and radial fossa
on lateral side of the humeral condyle; articulates with radius head. radial fossa directly above capitulum accepts radial head in flexion.
radial groove
runs along posterior margin of deltoid tuberosity, for path of radial nerve.
medial/lateral epicondyles
on sides of elbow joint
bones of the forearm
radius and ulna
point of elbow; top part of the ulna. has a trochlear notch on its anterior surface
trochlear notch
interlocks with the trochlea of the humerus, hugs it as the elbow is flexed/extended
coronoid process
the anterior and inferior lip of the trochlear notch, where the olecranon is the trochlear notch's posterior/superior lip. like a baby bird waiting for a worm.
ulnar tuberosity
directly below the coronoid process
ulnar head
at the distal end of the ulna, posterior margin supports the styloid process.
styloid process
attachment of ulna and carpal bones at the distal end of the ulna
forearm, lateral bone
radial head
articulates with capitulum of humerus
radial tuberosity
site of attachment for biceps brachii; extends from the neck below the head
radial styloid process
just like the ulnar
Wrist bones Some lovers try positions that they can't handle
Scaphoid, lunate, triangular, pisisform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate.
Bones of the hand
8 Carpals, 5 Metacarpals, 14 phalanges.
radial deviation
ulnar deviation
adduction of the wrist
metacarpalphalangeal joints
condyloid joints like in the toes. reference point is the 3rd finger, it can't adduct and only abducts.
gliding joints of the upper extremity
sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, carpometacrapals 2-5 and intercarpals.
ball and socket joints of the upper extremity
glenohumeral (shoulder)
hinge joints of upper extremity
humero-ulnar/radial (elbow), interphalangeal
glenoid labrum
a fibrocartilaginous deepening of the glenoid shoulder joint, covers the margin of the glenoid cavity.
coracohumeral ligament
originates at base of coracoid process, inserts on humeral head.
coracoacromial ligament
spans between coracoid process and acromion, just above the glenoid capsule. supports superior surface of capsule
radial/ulnar collateral ligaments
elbow ligaments that stabilize the elbow joint.
acromioclavicular ligament
binds acromion to clavicle, restricting clavicular movement at acromion end. dislocation of this joint results in shoulder seperation.
coracoclavicular ligaments (2)
tie clavicle to coracoid process, limit relative motion between clavicle and scapula, keeps clavicle from being superior to scapula. medial is conoid, lateral is trapezoid (from posterior view)

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