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double helix
the helical shape of the double chain of DNA that is like a spiral staircase w/a sugar-phosphate backbone on the outside and base pairs like stair steps on the inside
messenger RNA; produced in the nucleus by DNA to carry the genetic info to the ribosomes for the construction of a protein
the combination of a pentose sugar and a nitrogen-containing base
a grp of genes, including a control site and structural genes, whose transcription is controlled by the same regulatory gene
recombinant DNA
DNA spliced from different organisms to form new, synthetic DNA
the process of duplicating DNA by pairing the bases on each parent strand w/their complementary base
restriction enzyme
an enzyme that cuts a large DNA strand into smaller fragments to isolate a gene or to remove a portion of the DNA in the plasmids of E. coli
a virus that contains RNA as its genetic material and that synthesizes a complimentary DNA strand inside the cell
structural genes
the sections of DNA that code for the synthesis of proteins
the tranfer of genetic info from DNA by the formation of mRNA
Transfer RNA; an RNA that places a specific aa into a peptide chain at the ribosome. There is one or more tRNA for each of the 20 different aa's
genetic code
the sequence of codons in mRNA that specifies the aa order for the synthesis of protein
a sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a certain aa to be placed in a protein. A few codons signal the start or stop of transcription
enzyme induction
a model of cellular regualtion in which protein synthesis is induced by a stubtstrate
a change in the DNA base sequence that alters the formation of a protein in the cell
pholphodiester bond
the phosphate link that joins the 3' hydroxyl grp in one nucleotide to the phosphate grp on the 5'-C atom in the next nucleotide
complementary base pairs
in DNA, adenine is always paired w/thymine (A-T or T-A), and guanine is always paired w/cytosine (G-C or C-G). In forming RNA, adenine is paired w/uracil (A-U).
nitrogen-containing base
Nitrogen-containing compounds found in DNA and RNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (JG), and uracil (U)
building blcoks of a nucleic acid consisting of a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate grp
the interpretation of the codons in mRNA as aa's in a peptide
control site
a section of DNA composed of a promoter and operator that regulates protein synthesis
the sections in a DNA template that code for proteins
genetic disease
a physical malformation or metabolic dysfunction caused by a mutation in the base sequence of DNA
nucleic acids
large molecules composed of nucleotides, found as a double helix in DNA, and as the single strands of RNA
polymerase chain rxn (PCR)
a strand of DNA is copied many times by mixing it w/DNA polymerase and a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides
regulatory gene
a gene in front of the control site that produces a repressor
replication forks
the open sections in unwound DNA strands where DNA polymerase begins the replication process
Ribnucleic acid, a type of nucleic acid that is single strand of nucleotides containing adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
the triplet of bases in the center loop of tRNA that is complementary to a codon on mRNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all cells containing nucleotides w/deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and the four nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
frame shift mutation
a mutation that inserts or deletes a base in a DNA sequence
the sections in DNA that do not code for protein
Okazaki fragments
the short segments formed by DNA polymerase in the daughter DNA strand that runs in the 3' to 5' direction
primary structure
the sequences of nucleotides in nucleic acids
a protein that interacts w/the operator gene in an operon to prevent the transcription of mRNA
Ribosomal RNA; the most prevalent type of RNA; a major component of the ribosomes
a mutation that replaces one base in a DNA w/a different base
the shift of a ribosome along mRNA from one codon (three bases) to the next codon during translation
small particles containing DNA or RNA in a protein coat that require a host cell for replication

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