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Anatomy and Physiology Test 5


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What is a multipolar neuron?
It is the type of neuron that all motor and association neurons are. The cell body is inside the dendrites.
What is the neuron that receives the impulse?
The post synaptic neuron.
What is the resting membrane potential in neurons?
-70 mV
What is an impulse?
An EPSP that reaches or surpasses threshhold.
Name 3 differences between nerve to nerve and nerve to muscle
1. Can synapse at dendrite, cell body, axon hillock, or end bulb.
2. The impulse is not always excitatory.
3. The new impulse affects a small part of the nerve. Local potential.
What is repolarization?
When the H gates close (no more sodium coming in) and the potassium ions rush out.
What is the number of nerves out each side of the spinal cord?
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
-Maintains equilibrium, posture & balance.
-Compares intended movement with what is actually happening.
What are the components of the Autonomic Nervous System?
The sympathetic (speeds up) and the parasympathetic
A stimulus from a presynaptic neuron can be ....
Exitatory or Inhibitory
Name 2 types of nerve cells
Neuroglial Cells
Name 2 types of channels.
Chemical channels
Electrical channels
Name 2 types of neuroglial cells found in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Schwann Cells - make myelin sheath
Satellite Cells - support cell bodies in ganglia
What is a bipolar neuron?
It is the type of neuron that is in all the special senses. The cell body is in between the dendrites and the end bulbs.
What happens when a synapse is end bulb to end bulb?
The response is inhibitory.
Name 3 Neurotransmitters.
What are 2 ion channel gates in a nerve fiber?
M Gate - closed at rest
H Gate - open at rest
What is a mixed nerve?
A Sensory and Motor Nerve together.
What are 2 things about the midbrain?
1. Controls subconcious muscle activity
2. Contains the corpora quadrigemina
(reflex center where the movement of eyes, head and neck in response to visual stimuli)
What are 3 functions of the nervous system?
Motor Response
What are 2 areas of the cerebrum?
Brocas Area - production of speech
Wernickes Area - determines is a sound is speech, music or noise.
What is a ganglion
A cluster of cell bodies near the spinal cord.
Name 4 neoroglial cells found in the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Astrocytes - form blood brain barrier
Oligodendrocytes - make myelin sheath
Microglial cells - phagocytes eat up bad stuff
Epidymal cells - secrete cerebrospinal fluid
What is a nerve fiber?
The Axon and its Connective Tissue (CT) wrappings. Not the cell body.
What is the neuron that sends an impulse?
A presynaptic neuron.
What is the electrical threshhold of a nerve cell?
-55 mV
What happens in a nonmyelinated nerve?
There is continuous conduction. The same process all the way down the axon.
What is hyperpolarization?
When the electrical charge goes below -70mV.
What happens in Parkinson's Disease?
The neurons in the midbrain are degenerated.
What is the function of the pons.
Bridge that connects various parts of the brain.
What are 2 major Descending Tracts?
Pyramidal Pathway-voluntary muscles movement.
Extra Pyramidal Pathway - programmed autonomic movements coordinate body movements with visual stimuli.
Name 3 types of neuronal circuits
Simple Series Circuit-1 pre, 1 post
Diverging Circuit-1 pre, many post
Converging Circuit-many pre, one post
What are 3 things that protect the brain?
The skull, the meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid.
Name 2 functions of the spinal cord
1. Highway of ascending and descending tracts
2. Integration
What are the components of the PNS
The Somatic Nervous System and the Autonomic Nervous System
What is a nerve?
A bundle of many nerve cell fibers that run along the same path in the PNS.
Where do all the impulses gather to be totalled?
At the trigger zone.
What is the relative refractory period?
An stimulus can generate a second action potential but only with a suprathreshhold stimulus. (more than -55 mV)
What is an IPSP?
An Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (negative total)
Name 2 things about the thalmus
Relay station for sensory impulses.
Acquisition of knowledge.
What are 5 functions of the medulla?
1.Receives info from cranial nerves.
2.Regulates force & rate of heartbeat
3.Adjusts rythm of breathing
4.Coordinates swallowing, sneezing, coughing, vomiting.
5.Contains pyramids where nerves cross over.
Name 2 types of ascending tracts.
Spinothalmic Tract-sensory info, pain, temp, deep pressure.
Posterior Column Tract-sensory info w/awareness of movement, discriminative touch, 2 point discrimination.
What is the CNS
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
What are 7 functions of the hypothalamus?
1.major regulator of homeostasis in body
2.controls the ANS (Symp and Parasymp)
3.regulates emotional/behavioralpatterns
4.contains hunger & thirst centers
5.controls body temperature
6.regulates different states of consciousness.
7.controls the pituitary gland (growth&reproduction.)
Where is the blood brain barrier located?
Between the cerebrospinal fluid and the capillaries.
Where do sensory nerves go into the spinal cord?
In the dorsal root ganglion.
What is a unipolar neuron?
It is the type of neuron that all sensory neurons are like. The cell body is away from the dendrites at the ganglion.
What 4 places can a nerve synapse?
Cell body
Axon Hillock
The next end bulb
What is summation?
Adding up the local potentials in the trigger zone.
What is the absolute refractory period?
There is no membrane potential and no impulse.
What happens in a myelinated axon?
There is saltatory conduction. The impulse jumps over the schwann cells to the nodes of Ranvier.
Pineal Gland
Secretes hormone called melatonin
(biological clock)
What are the 3 layers of Connective Tissue (CT) around nerves.
Endoneurium - surronds each axon.
Perineurium - around fascicles.
Epineurium - around whole nerve.
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located?
In the subarachnoid space.
What is the PNS?
Peripheral Nervous System
All other nerves in the body.
What is the blood brain barrier made of?
Where do motor nerves exit the spinal cord?
In the ventral root.
What does polarized mean?
A cell that has membrane potential.
When do the H gates close?
at 30 mV
What is an EPSP?
An Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (positive total)
What are the 4 parts of the diencephalon?
Pituitary Gland
Pineal Gland
What are the 5 components of the Reflex Arc?
1.Receptor - sensory neurons
2.Info taken to spinal cord
Monosynaptic or Polysynaptic
4.Motor response
5.Effector responds appropriately.
What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
Dura Mater (outside)
Arachnoid (middle)
Pia Mater (inside)
What are 2 functions of the cerebrum?
1. Memory
2. Processing specific types of sensory integration and motor signals.

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