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LOM Ch 5 Digestive Pathology


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Crohn disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Causes diarrhea, cramping, fever. Can affect anywhere from mouth to anus (most often terminal ileum and colon).
hiatal hernia
upper part of the stomach protrudes upward thru the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
failure of peristalsis
frequent, loose, watery stools.
viral hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by virus. Symptoms: malaise, anorexia, occasional joint pain; in severe cases: nausea & jaundice.
abnormal accumulation of fluid in abdomen. Fluid seeps out of bloodstream & collects in peritoneal cavity. Entire stomach looks ballooned, pregnant.
inguinal hernia
small loop of bowel protrudes thru a weak place in the lower abdominal muscle wall (groin)
failure of lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax. Loss of peristalsis occurs, causing dilation & widening of exophagus.
periodontal disease
inflammation & degeneration of gums, teeth, & surrounding bone-result of accumulation of dental plaque, dental calculus, tartar; a.k.a. pyorrhea
twisting of the intestine upon itself. A surgical emergency.
telescoping of the intestines. A cause of intestinal obstruction; mostly in kids, & in the ileocecal region. Treatment: resection & anastomosis.
lack of appetite. Often a sign of malignancy or liver disease. (anorexia nervosa-loss of appetite due to emotional eating disorder)
crystallization of cholesterol & other materials to form stones in the gallbladdder or bile ducts.
Hepatitis B
(serum hepatitis)
from B virus, acquired parenterally, thru blood (transfusions, needles, dental/surgical instruments), body fluids (tears, saliva, semen. Vaccine available.
ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers. Involves rectal bleeding & pain, associated w/ higher risk of colon cancer
painful, inflamed intestines. Often in the colon, often from ingested food/water containing bacteria or viruses. Colitis, diarrhea, abdominal cramps occur.
protrusion of an organ or part thru the muscle normally containing it
a.k.a. icterus; yellow-orange coloration of skin & other tissues from high levels of bilirubin in blood (hyperbilirubinemia). 3 major causes are hemolysis, liver disease & obstruction of bile flow.
difficulty in swallowing.
oral leukoplakia
white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth. A precancerous condition, often from chronic tobacco & alcohol use
rumbling, gurgling noises produced by movement of gas, fluid, or both in GI tract.
(singular: diverticulum)
abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall. Common location is sigmoid colon. Diverticulitis occurs when undigested food/bacteria becomes trapped there.
chronic disease of the liver w/ degeneration of liver cells. Commonly from alcoholism w/ malnutrition, also infection & poisons.
anal fistula
abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus. Usually (not always) opens into rectum.
difficult, delayed elimination of feces. Stools are dry & hard when peristalsis is slow. Laxatives & cathartics (strong laxatives) encourage movement of fees from colon.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
solids & fluids return to the mouth from the stomach.
*heartburn is from regurgitation of hydrochloric acid from stomach to esophagus
Hepatitis A
(previously called infectious hepatitis)
inflammation of liver, caused by type A virus- a benign, acute, self-limited disorder transmitted by infected water & food (virus is excreted in feces)
anal fissure
narrow crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus.
painful swallowing
colonic polyposis
polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
belching-expelling of gas from stomach thru mouth. Flatus is gas expelled thru anus. Flatulence-presence of excessive gas in both stomach & intestines.
bright, fresh, red blood discharged from the rectum. Associated withrapid bleeding, as from a duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, or hemorrhoids.
colorectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the colon, rectum, or both. Approx. 50% develop in rectosigmoid region
irritable bowel syndrome
a group of GI symptoms (diarrhea & constipation, lower ab pain, bloating)associated with stress & tension. a.k.a spastic colon.
swollen, tortuous veins in the rectal region. Often from chronic constipation, straining; can be internal/external;
inflammation of the pancreas. Digestive enzymes attack pancreatic tissue.
fat in the feces. May indicate disease of pancreas or small intestine
black, tarry stools; feces containing blood. Usually reflects a condition in which blood has had time to be digested.
open sore or lesion of skin tissue. Peptic ulcers are gastric ulcers & duodenal ulcers.
Hepatitis C
transmitted by blood/blood products. Transmission thru sexual contact & from mother to infant is rare.
esophageal varices
swollen, tortuous veins in the distal portion of esophagus or upper part of stomach.
dental caries
tooth decay
aphthous stomatitis
inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers. a.k.a. canker sores;
herpetic stomatitis
inflammation of mouth by infection of herpesvirus (gingiva, lips, palate & tongue are affected). a.k.a. fever blisters or cold sores

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