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Sarah's Public Relations Test Chapters 1-8


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A great American entertainer, created the pseudo event?
PT Barnum
How do the objectives of journalism differ from the objectives of PR?
Journalists gather and select info to provide news and information to the public. PR reps also do this, but communicating info is not just to inform, but to change people's attitudes and behaviors in order to further an organization's goals and objectives.
virtue ethics
individuals will acheive their highest potential if they practice such virtues as honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence.
Public relations pros have the burden of making ethical decisions that satisfy what 4 areas?
the public interest, their employer, their professional organization's code of ethics, and their personal values.
Henry Rogers
established PR firm to serve the movie industry. Represented Rita Hayworth in a campaign that hammed her up as a fashionista with bullshit testimonies by a fake fashion association. Had Hayworth pose for a big magazine in hot threads and it started her career. Used the press agentry/publicity model.
The idea that credit in publicity should go to the one who does something first or best in order set themselves apart from the competition is known as?
fairness/social justice ethics
everyone should be treated equally, or fairly, based on some inequality that is defensible.
random sampling is a technique used in choosing who to include in participation of focus groups, surveys, and other types of research. It ensures that everyone n the targeted audience has an equal or known chance of being selected for the survey, group, ect. Also called a probability sample. Opposite is a nonprobability sample. A good example of random sampling is choosing from a list of all the audience's names by saying 'every 25th member'.
Mail surveys have what disadvantage?
They have a low response rate.
What is a btter way to generate a response using mail surveys?
An organization mailing a survey to it's members.
When is audience attention to a message the highest?
when it is targeted directly at their interests, for example an organization sending out brochures or mail surveys directly to it's members.
How does PR differ from journalism?
Both write, however they have a different scope, objective, audience, and channel.
the nuts and bolts part of the plan that describes, in sequence, the specific activities that put the strategies into operation and help to achieve the stated objectives
The glorification of Davy Crockett and Annie Oakley in PR is known as
'Press Agentry".
An event that has been caused to occur or staged to engender press coverage and public interest
Purpose of Evaluation
the measurement of results against established objectives set during the planning process in order to determine whether objectives were met, success level, and effectiveness.
existentialist ethics
decisions are based on immediate practical choice, not a prescribed value system.
Grunig's Four Classic Models of Public Relations
Press Agentry/publicity model, Public Information Model, Two-Way asymmetrical model, Two-Way Symmetrical Model
Reputation Management
Involves recording an organization's actions and the opinions of others about those actions Goal is to build relationships between organization and stakeholder publics
Copy Testing
getting a sample of the target public to review the copy of any publication prior to distribution to ensure that the target public will be able to understand the level of reading.
The systematic dissemination of a doctrine, a cause, or information reflecting the views and interests of those advocating such a doctrine or cause. First used by the Roman Catholic Church in the 1500s - 1600s to establish the Church in non-Christian countries. Popularized in modern times in WWII.
What are the different approaches to Ethics?
absolutist, existentialist, situationalist/utilitarian, fairness, social justice, and virtue.
Ethical dealings with news media
PR practitioners should be fair, honest, and open with the media. Such behaviors build trust and credibility. Advertising influences on media coverage, plus the giving of gifts, tend to undermine public trust of the media.
Corporate Social Responsibility
A company is accountable to all of its stakeholders in all its operations and activities with the aim of achieving economical success as well as social and environmental success. Examples: Corporate donations to charity; corporate sponsored community service projects; fair labor practices
Writing for Clarity
producing messages that match, in content and structure, the literacy levels of the target audience. Supported by the use of symbols, acronyms, and slogans.
Types of interviews
intercept interviews and purposive interviewing.
Essential abilities of a PR practitioner
writing skill, research ability, planning expertise, problem-solving ability, business/economics competence.
over-technical words that can only be understood by experts of a field, not good for laymen or the general public.
Leone Baxter
founded the first political campaign management firm in the U.S. Advised Eisenhower when he ran for Pres, and helped Nixon save his career with the famous 'checkers' speech. Stated "Never win a campaign defensively. The only successful defense is a spectacular, hard-hitting crushing offensive." Not sure what model she used.
Elmer Davis
worked for Roosevelt, headed the Office of War Information. Promoted War Bonds during WWII based on Creel's model, wartime rations, 'victory gardens'. Used the Press/Agentry and Publicity Model.
situationalist/utilitarian ethics
each decision is based on what would cause the least harm or do the most good.
An event that has been caused to occur to engender press to the general public interest?
What are the functions of the research phase of PR
to acheive credibility with management, define audiences and segment publics, formulate strategy, test messages, help management keep in touch, prevent crises, monitor the competition, sway public opinion, generate publicity, measure success.
Goals of the communication process
to inform, persuade, motivate, or achieve mutual understanding.
The five stage adoption process
the natural process that people go through in order to accept new ideas or products. Includes: Awareness, Interest, Evaluation, Trial, and Adoption.
The idea that credit and publicity should go to the one who does something first or the best. Purpose is to set apart from the competition.Tactically, this involves press and analyst presentations, industry event participation, strong positive image for key players, etc.
Prioritizing publics
Degree of influence, Prestige, Power, Needs, Level of Involvement
Content analysis
the systematic and objective counting or categorizing of content. Used to glean info, check to see how many times a message is used or a company mentioned.
Relationship management
the basic idea that public relations practitioners are in the business of building and fostering relationships with an organizaiton's various publics.
the results of the plan.
Which pr person gained a national rep for his council after the ludlow massacre
Ivy Lee
Father of PR research?
Rex Harlow
informational objectives
designed to distribute message exposure, increase comprehension, absorption of message
A company is accountable to all of it's stake holders and all of it's operations and activities with the aim of achieving economic
corporate social responsibility.
Advantages and Disadvantages of using a PR firm
advantages are objectivity, skills and expertise, extensive resources, offices throughout the country, special problem-solving skills, credibility. Disadvantages are a superficial grasp of client's unique problems, lack of full-time commitment, need for prolongued briefing period, resentment by internal staff, need for strong direction by top management, need for full info and confidence, costs.
Public Relations Student Society of America (GSU)
Amos Kendall
former Kentucky newspaper editor became an intimate member of President Andrew Jackson's "kitchen cabinet" and is regarded the first presidential press secretary. Used the Public Information model with some Two-Way Symmetry principles.
Ivy Lee
the first public relations counsel. Worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the Rockefeller Family. he beleived in providing the public with full information and details on a situation. He got the railroads to provide full disclosure about accidents to the press, and saved Rockefellers rep in the wake of 'the Ludlow Massacres'. He founded the principles of the Public Information model, and used it.
programs should be directed toward specific and defined public using market research and common sense
What is technician mentality?
the mentality of people who narrowly define professionalism as the ability to do a competent job of executing the mechanics of communicating (preparing news releases, brochures, newsletters, and so on) even if the information provided by management or a client is in bad taste, is misleading, lacks documentation, or is just plain wrong.
Grunig's 5 objectives for a communicator
message exposure, accurate dissemination of the message, acceptance of the message, attitude change, change in overt behavior.
This aspect of public relations involves recording an organizations actions and the opinions of others about those actions to build relationships between those organizations and it's publics.
Reputation management.
Public Information Model
One-way communication, Uses press releases and other one-way communication techniques to distribute organizational information. Public relations practitioner is often referred to as the "journalist in residence.
PRSA's Code of Ethics and consequences for violating them
the Public Relations SOciety of America code of ethics to govern PR actions in any member campaign. Based on advocacy, honesty, expertise, independence, loyalty, and fairness. Promotes free flow of information, fair competition, public disclosure, client trust, conflicts of interest, and professional enhancement. The penalty for violations can be removal from membership/accreditation, however practitioners can continue to work.
1/3 of the internet users age 18-34 obtain their news online
False. 55%
Program planning
what to do?, what sequences?, what goal?
Eleanor Lambert
fashion public relations pioneer. put Bill Blass and Calvin Klien on the map when European brands dominated, writer of 'the best dressed list' for 62 years. Not sure which model she used, probably press agentry/publicity.
Qualitative Research
subjective, include textual analysis of: organizational records, published materials, internet sites. Other methods: interviews with key members of target publics, feedback from customers
How we are going to be told.
Hype words
words used wayyyy to often in order to make a message or communication seem more dynamic.
Research, Objectives, Programming, and Evaluation
2 names for the process model of public relations
Identification of Publics
Standard publics: media, employees, surrounding community, national, state, local gov. Others: customers (businessmen), donors(Non-profits), parents (schools)
Difference between a press release and a queried article
press release is a piece of writing drafted by a PR rep to provide information to the press. A queried article is ???
concerned with how we should live our lives, what is right or wrong, fair or unfair, caring or uncaring, good or bad, responsible or irresponsible. Most ethical conflicts are not black/white, but gray. Determined by a person's beleif system.
Communication audit
used to measure the reception of appropriate campaign messages by primary and secondary publics. Includes analysis of all communication activities, informal interviews with rank-and-file employees and informal interviews with community leaders, media gatekeepers, consumers, distributors.
refers to the expectation that line managers (top level) at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding on a strategy.
Which was not Bernays sig. campaign?
Rockefeller/Ludlow reconciliation
How does the scope of Journalism differ from the scope of PR?
Journalists write and exercise media relations. Public Relations practitioners do those and think strategically, solve problems, and manage.
P.T. Barnum
the great American showman of the 19th century. Created the pseudoevent and used hype to promote events, performers, and entertainers. Used the Press agentry/Publicity model.
Thomas Paine wrote
Common Sense
How do you write an impact/motivational objective?
Duracell Batteries: "Distribute all of the branded 'guidebooks' and coupons to consumers in the major metro area." CheckFree: "To increase awareness and confidence in online bill paying among women by securing at least 15 articles in target publications, with each article including at least two key CheckFree messages or research statistics." Council for Biotech Information: "Halt the trend of negative news coverage of the topic." Cingular: "Create awareness of the dangers of distracted driving among 3 million teens over a three-year period (2002-2004)." Levi jeans : "Reverse Levi's stodgy image with young consumers by generating upbeat media coverage."
First use of the word Propaganda
Pope Gregory
Public Information
A general term describing processes used to provide information to external audiences through public mediaAn attempt to make the public relations process more transparent and less reliant on hype and exaggeration
The two major criteria for public relations effectiveness are
1. An increase in public awareness, and 2. delivery of key messages.
describes how, in concept, an objective is to be achieved (means) Should state key themes reiterated through the campaign, broad statements, leave specifics to the 'tactics' section
Impact objectives
Informational (160) designed to expose publics to information and increase awareness of an issue, event, or product AND Motivational (161) bottom-line oriented, based on changing attitudes and influencing behavior.
an inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct and less distasteful than the one that represents reality. for example: calling a used car 'pre-owned'. calling a recession a 'meaningful downturn in aggregate output. Often seen as misleading, fosters cyniscm and distrust, and hostility against speakers.
Purposes for Focus Groups
an informal research procedure that develops qualitative information rather than hard data. Identifies attitudes and motivations of important publics.
describes how, in concept, an objective is to be achieved, providing guidelines and themes for the overall program.
the 'end' or 'goal' of a campaign, not the means.
Two-Way Symmetrical Model
Two-way communication, Uses communication to negotiate with publics, resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its public(s).
Bowen Article
Research study about the preconceptions of PR majors and students regarding Public Relations. Discusses popular definitions of PR, the persistent negative perception of PR, and the low graduation rate of PR majors due to student alienation to the realities of the field. Bowen discussed the importance of refining the aims of universities in teaching Public Relations classes to focus on attracting and preparing the right students for the major in order to improve the quality of real world PR as a whole. Bowen also states that students that are educated/informed about the strategic management, relationship building, and research involved in the PR field, they saw the major in a positive light.
Purpose of program planning
keep actions in line with organizations value based mission, help us control our destiny, Better understand and focus research, Help achieve consensus, Allow effective management of resources
Primary vs. Secondary research
Primary research is research that's tailored to a company's particular needs. By customizing tried-and-true approaches — focus groups, surveys, field tests, interviews or observation — you can gain information about your target market. It creates new information. secondary research is the type of research based on information gleaned from studies previously performed by government agencies, chambers of commerce, trade associations, and other organizations
Two-Way asymmetrical model
Two-way communication, Uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audience to behave as the organization desires. Does not use research to find out how it public(s> feel about the organization.
researching a problem
reactive, short term, necessary, not always pleasant
First president used to make extensive use of press conferences?
Teddy Roosevelt.
absolutist ethics
every decision is either 'right' or 'wrong'.
intercept interviews
short interviews with people in shopping malls or at a meeting, designed to get info on public opinion and attitudes. Not rigorous. Lasts a few minutes.
Line vs. Staff Functions
line managers delegate authority, set production goals, hire employees, and directly influence the work of others. Staff people, in contrast, have little or no direct authority, indirectly influence the work of others through suggestions, recommendations, and advice. PR workers are generally staff people.
What is the response rate when an organization mails surveys to it's members?
Goal of Research
answer the problem and determine what the client is facing.
behavioral objectives
designed to impact the public's behavior to suit the campaign
A general term used to describe processes used to provide external information to the public through press releases.
Grunig's Situational Theory of Strategic Constituencies
According to the situational theory of publics (J. E. Grunig, 1997), practitioners can identify their most strategic constituencies by identifying publics who are most likely to influence their organizations and publics who their organizations' actions will affect.
This person was considered to be the first PR councilor in the modern era.
Jim Moran
PR publicist and press agent who was known for stunts. Sat on an ostrich egg for 19 days to promote a book. Used Press Agentry/Publicity model.
already overused lines, words, phrases.
Rex Harlow
'father of public relations research'. first full-time PR educator. Founded the Public Relations Society of America.
8 elements to program plan
situation, objectives, audiences, strategy, tactics, calendar/timetable, budget, evaluation.
Quantitative Reseach
objective: surveys, content analysis (counting), determine audience info. levels, attitudes, behavior, media habits. Distributed by mail, telephone, or in person (internet getting popular)
Arthur Page
became VP of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) in 1927. Established that PR should have an active voice in higher management. Stated that performance, not press-agentry, was the basis for public approval. Corporate PR pioneer. Probably used the Public INformation Model.
impact/motivational objectives
harder to measure/establish. Impact that campaign is designed to have on the public or the problem.
Kobe Bryant Case
Kobe Bryant was accused of rape by a 19 year old girl. His PR campaign directed his public confession of adultery, and his statement that the sex with the girl was wrong, but consensual. His campaign may or may not have been involved with the intense media storm around her credibility at the time ofthe trial, and she chose not to testify against him in court. (May or may not have been afraid and/or guilty.) Bryant later showed up at the Teen Choice Awards to accept a recognition award, and make civil rights statements quoting Dr. Martin Luther King Junior, "An injustice anywhere is an injustice everywhere." He was heavily criticised by PR practitioners for risking his rep for this appearance and statement.
How are the audiences of journalists different from the audiences of PR reps?
Journalists work primarily for a mass audience. It is not well defined. A PR rep carefully segments audiences into various demographic and psychological characteristics and interests for maximum effect.
Research involves 3 Key Elements
client, opportunities, public
Unethical practices which result in poor reputation of PR
lowballing, distortion (hype, minimizing, overgeneralizing, categorizing, labeling, image transfer), spin, expensive gifts or personal favors, and nondisclosure.
Ethical dealings with news media
PR practitioners should be fair, honest, and open with the media. Such behaviors build trust and credibility. Advertising influences on media coverage, plus the giving of gifts, tend to undermine public trust of the media.
researching an opportunity
proactive, long term, geared to create good will.
Teddy Roosevelt
former president of the U.S. First Pres. to make extensive use of news conferences and interviews to drum up support for projects, like preserving areas for public recreational use. Used the Press Agentry/Publicity model.
Excessive use of publicity
Press Agentry/publicity model
One-way communication, Uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audience to behave as the organization desires
George Creel
PR rep best known for his work for Woodrow Wilson during WWI. Designed a campaign to propagandize American nationalism in news and magazines, encourage Americans to invest in Liberty Bonds, and focus hatred away from German's and loyalty towards the U.S. Government. He used the Press Agentry/Publicity Model
Tells us what we're going to do about the isssue.
Promotion of Tom Thumb and Jenny Lynn was promoted by having famous people attend shows. What is this technique called?
Third party endorsement
Benjamin Sonnenberg
advised Texaco to sponsor performances of the Metropolitan Opera on national radio. Took on a subtle PR approach rather than a sweeping, hard-hitting campaign. SOunds like the opposite of Leone Baxter. Not sure which model used, probably publicity model with some research?
Henry Ford
America's first major industrialist. Created the concept of positioning, and of being accessible to the press. Promoted his Model T by demonstrating it to a reporter. Hired a champion bike racer to drive his car at record speed. Positioned himself as champion to the common man, making his cars cheap and paying his workers well. Always allowed media interviews about anything. Practiced the Public Information Model and Corporate social responsibility.
Public Relations Society of America (previously known as American Council on Public Relations)
Edward Bernays
considered the Father of Modern PR. Developed the Two-Way Assymetrical Model of PR. Wrote book "Crystallizing Public Opinion" which became core of PR practice. Worked for Ivory Soap (soap sculpture contest), Ballet Russe (Russian Ballet post WWI), and Light's Golden Jubilee (world shut off all power for 1 minute to honor Edison). He is the reason the world thinks of bacon and eggs as the typical American breakfast.
What is the response rate of a mail survey that converns issues considered highly relevant to the general public?
How does PR differ from marketing?
Public Relations is concerned with building relationships and generating goodwill for the organization, and marketing is concerned with customers and selling products and services
What is the response rate of a typical mail survey distributed to the general public?
purposive interviews
in depth interviews that last longer and are taken of carefully selected individuals based on their expertise, influence, or leadership.
Excessive publicity and the ensuing commotion; characterized by exaggerated, extravagant, or sensational claims (i.e. "The Greatest Show on Earth") Derived from the English language term 'hyperbole'
using baseline (or benchmark studies) to measure audience attitudes and opinions before, during, and after a campaign that graphically show the percentage difference in attitudes and opinions as a result of information and publicity.
Prerequisite for Evaluation
must have a clearly established set of measurable objectives. First, PR personel and management should agree on the criteria used to evaluate success. Second, dont wait until the end of the program to determine how it will be evaluated. Break down the problem into measurable goals and objectives at each level.
Advertising equivalency
calculating the value of message exposure by converting stories in regular news columns and on the air into equivalent advertising costs. This approach is somewhat suspect due to the differences between advertisements and PR campaigns.
attitudinal objectives
designed to impact the public's attitude to suit the campaign
Who was the first presidential public relations person?
Amos Kendall
How do you write an informational objective?
Mack Trucks: "Increase awareness and understanding of Mack highway vehicles and engine technology." Levi Jeans: "Double teen traffic to" National Association of Manufacturers: "Educate target audiences on the fundamental importance of manufacturing to our nation's current competitiveness and future prosperity."
output objectives
these deal specifically with media, for example handing out a crapload of brochures or creating a website.
How does PR differ from advertising?
Format and context. PR publicity involves getting information about an event, individual, group, or product to appear as a news item or feature story in the mass media. Advertising, however, is paid space and broadcast time. Organizations and individuals contract with ad departmentsof a mass media outlet for a full-page ad or a one-minute commercial.
Research, Action Planning, Communication, and Evaluation

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