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Sociology "A down to Earth Approach" Ch 1


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What does Psychology focus on?
Mental Process
What was Harriet Martineau's major contribution to sociology?
Published "Society in America" and translated Comte's ideas into English
What is Micro?
Micro-Level Analysis

An examination of small-scale patterns of society
What is Natural Science?
The intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
Who was W.E.B Du Bois?
Spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and Whites.
What is Verstehen?
A German word used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as "to have insight into someones situation"
What does Anthropology focus on?
Culture, a people's total way of life
What is Social Integration?
The degree to which people feel a part of social groups.
Identified by Emile Durkheim
What is Non-Verbal Interactions?
Communication without words through gestures, space, silence, and so on
What was Jane Adams major contribution to sociology?
Social Reform
Co-founded Hull House
Won Nobel Peace Prize for Hull House
What is Sociology?
The scientific study of society and human behavior
Who is Emile Durkheim?
French Sociologist who contributed many concepts to sociology. His identification of the role of social integration in social life remains central to sociology today.
What is Science?
The application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods.
What is Positivism?
The idea of applying the Scientific Method to the social world.
Was 1st proposed by Auguste Comte
What is Social Facts?
Durkheim's term for a groups pattern of behavior
What is Macro?
Macro-Level Anaylysis

An examination of Large-scale patterns of society
What is Objectivity?
Total Neutrality
What is Theory
A general statement anout how some parts of the world fit together and how they work: an explination of how two or more facts are related to one another
Who is Herbert Spencer?
Analyzed the evolution of societies, coined the term "survival of the fittest". Spencer thought that helping the poor was wrong, that this mearly helped the "less fit" survive.
What does Political Science focus on?
Politics and Government
What is Social Interaction?
What people do when they are in anothers presence
Who is Harriet Martineau?
Interested in Social reform. She discovered the writings of Comte. An advocate for the abolition of slavery, she traveled widely and wrote extensively. Her book, society in America, provides a fascinating analysis of U.S. life prior to the Civil War.
What is Subjective Meanings
The meanings that people give their own behavior
What is Replication?
Repeating a study in order to check its findings
What does Economics focus on?
Production and distribution of the material goods and services of a society
Wha is Value Free?
The view that a sociologist's personal values should not influence social research
What is Authority?
Power that people consider legitmate
What does Sociology focus on?
Society and human behavior
Who was Auguste Comte?
Is credited as the founder of Sociology, began to analyze the basis of the social order. Although he stressed that the scientific method should be applied to the study of socioty he did not aply it himself
Who is Jane Addams?
A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, worked on behalf of poor immigrants. She founded Hull House, a center to help immigrants in Chicago. She was a leader in Women's Rights as well as the Peace Movement of WWI
What was W.E.B Du Bois major contribution to Sociology?
1st African American to attend Harvord.

Founded NAACP - National Association for the Advancment of Colored People
What is the Sociological Perspective?
Understanding human behavior by placing it withen its broader social context
What is C. Wright Mills ideas about the Sociological Perspective?
"The Sociological Perspective enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography"
What is value?
Ideas about what is good or worthwhile in life; attitudes about the way the world ought to be
What is Symbolic Interactionism?
A theroretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
What is Globalization?
The extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism
What is society?
A group of people who share a culture and territory
Who was Talcott Parsons?
Developed abstract models of society that influenced a generation of sociologists. Parsons detailed models of how the parts of society harmoniously work together did nothing to stimulate social activism
What is the Scientific Method?
THe use of objective, systematic observations to test theories
What are the social sciences?
1. Political Science
2. Economics
3. Anthropology
4. Psychology
5. Sociology
Who is Max Weber?
Was another early sociologist who left a profound impression on sociology. He used cross-cultural and historical materials to determine how extensively social groups affect peoples orientations to life
What are the goals of science?
1. Explain why something happens
2. Make generalizations (go beyond individual to groups)
3. Predict what will happen
Who is Karl Marx?
Analyzed the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisi. He believed that the overthrow of the bourgeoisi by the proletariat was inevitable. Although Marx did not consider himself a sociologist, his ideas have profoundly influenced many sociologist, particulary conflict thoerists.
Who is associated with the Conflict theory?
Karl Marx
What is Globalization of Capitalism?
Capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system
What is the Conflict Thoery?
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources.

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