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physical science chp. 14


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a modified lever consisting of a rope that moves around a grooved wheel; can be movable or fixed
distance principle
states that any reduction in the effort force will be paid for by an increased distance through which that force must act
a rigid bar capable of turning about a fulcrum
mechanical advantage (M.A.)
the amount by which a machine magnifies effort (force)
law of moments
the method for computing the amount of force exerted by levers with unequal arms;
w(1)d(1) = w(2)d(2)
block and tackle
an arrangement of fixed and movable pulleys connected by ropes; has a high mechanical advantage
second-class lever
a lever in which the resistance is located between the fulcrum and the effort
watt (W)
the SI unit of power; 1 joule of energy per second
scientific idealization
approximating an answer when an extremely accurate one is not needed
third-class lever
a lever in which the effort is applied between the fulcrum and the resistance
effort arm
the distance from the fulcrum to the effort
the distance between two adjacent threads on a screw; how high or low a tone sounds to an observer (related to frequency)
an inclined plane would around a cylinder or cone
inclined plane
a slanted surface used to raise objects
joule (J)
the SI unit of energy; equal to 1 Newton-meter of work
the percent of work input returned as useful output
wheel and axle
modified lever in which the effort arm and the resistance arm revolve around a central fulcrum
the amount of work done in a given period of time

P = W/t
the force that must be applied to a simple machine to make it produce work
resistance arm
the distance from the fulcrum to the resistance
the force against which a simple machine works; opposition to the flow of electrons
simple machines
One or two part devices that make work easier: lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, screw
when the law of moments is not being met and there is pivoting on the fulcrum
first-class lever
a lever in which the fulcrum is located between the effort and the resistance
the product of the force applied on an object multiplied by the distance the object moved;
w= F x d
the fixed point about which a lever turns
two inclined planes placed "back-to-back"

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