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biology final 2


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A significant event, occurrence, or change.
transmission of a trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome (one pair)
an allele of a gene pair that is not expressed while the other member of the pair is expressed
embryonic stage
a prenatal stage of development after germ layers form but before the rudiments of all organs are present
primary germ layers
three layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and extoderm) of embryonic cells that develop into specific tissues and organs
programmed cell death
a built in cell suicide mechanism essential for growth of fingers and toes
embryonic stage following the blastula; cells differentiate into three layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and the ectoderm
a chemical or other environmental agent that causes a birth defect
a chromosome other than a sex chromosome (22 of them)
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a procedure that borrows a cell's mechanism for DNA replication allowing researchers to make many copies of a gene of interest
the member of a gene pair that is expressed while its allele is not expressed
Punnent Square
a way to figure out what traits the child will have from the parents

the combination of genes present within a zygote or within the cells of an individual (boy or girl)
glial cells
tissure in brain that produces miolin (coating over sheath of neurons; supporting tissue; aids in communication) aids in communication; neuron supporting cell...if becomes a tumor it is gliomas which is a type of cancer(half of brain tumors reported are glioma)
cell specialization
process by which cells develop defferent structures and specailized functions
tumor suppressor genes
helps to slow or stop the production of proteins that cause cancer...stops cell division
cell specialization (process by which cells develop different structures and specialized functions)
the appearance of an individual due to the action of a particular set of genes (tells the person's appearance)
totipotent cell
does not differentiate; potential to form any organ
pluripotent cell
potentially differentiate into any blood cell or platelet producing cell
stem cell
pluripotent cell (blood cell)
embryonic disk
a flattened area in the cleavage embryo from which the embryo arises
blastema cells
unspecialized; lost or never had specialized nature; can regain identity; don't have to have any mutations
proto-oncogenes or ras-oncogenes
pre-cancer cells help to undertand when to grow and divide vs. when time to rest and relax; surface protein - "on/off switch"; growth factor turns in "on", if mutated in becomes an oncogene
cancer cells
lost specialized nature; can't regain identity; mutations required in many genes to be able to form
different forms of a gene
cancerous cells; a gene that normall y controls cell division but when overexpressed leads to cancer

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