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PR 312 Lecture Notes


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Risk Reduction
Needed as costs and importance of decision increase and as certainty decreases
Pre-campaign research
helps us understand audiences, establish benchmarks and plan
provides basis for evaluating campaign outcomes
FOrmal reasearch
Scientific, systematic
Informal research
unscintific, process not systematic, produces subjective results
Error Free Research
Costs more
Research Planning Process
Develop research questions, review past research, design research, gather data, analyze data, organize findings
Commonly used types of informal research
Clip files, personal contacts, advisory committees, literature, mail, email, phone call analysis
lack of systematic process, suffer high rate of nonresponse
Types of Formal Research
Experiments, survey
Focus Groups
8-12 people led by a moderator,
advantages of a focus group
quick, inexpensive, flexible, contexts of response, explanation
Disadvantages of a Focus group
No generalizability, results lack external validity, results are subjective, results may be misinterpreted
Surveys in the Mail come wiht?
often come with a 2$ bill or a pen
Advantages of mail surveys
cheap, scattered response, sensitive subjects, no interviewer bias,
Disadvantages of Mail surveys
time, response rate is questionable, no control, inducements needed
Telephone Surveys - Advantages
Low cost, quick, response rate (is now lower than it once was), Random digit dialing
Disadvantages of Telephone surveys
Response rates falling, length (it has to be short), potential for confusiion, bias
Personal interview - advantages
Flexible, high response rate
Personal Interview - disadvantages
most expensive option, takes too long, bias, no supervision
Mall Intercept Surveys
are quick and easy to conduct, but nonprobabilty sample is a real issue
Internet Surveys (Via Email or Web Site) - Advantages
not very expensive, it is quick, flexible, scattered respondents, no interviewer bias
Internet Surveys (via email or web site) - disadvantages
Sample limitations, potential response rate concerns, length, sometimes computer can take survey multiple times
Examine Data and Results Carefully
Pay attention to surprising results, dont dismiss findings because you disagree, dont selectively interpret results
Offensive v. Defensive actions
Typically PR has waited for things to happen, resulting in defensive action. Creating good will is a weak offensive action
Deadline Orientation
Creates crisis situations, inefficient use of time and resources
Advantages of Planning
Helps define problems, scheduling time and resources, provides a basis for budgeting
The Lead sentence
Short and tight (25-30 words), include as many of the W\'s as possible
Basic Conventions (for standard print)
Use standard letterhead (type on one side only double space)
Include the following in a release
Full name and address of the organization, contact name and phone # (am/pm), slug line, release date,
What do you put at the end of a news release
\"###\" or \"30\"
true or false: end each page with a complete paragraph
if the release is more than one page write..... at the bottom
True or false: type the page number and slug line only on the first page?
false - slugline and page number on top of each page
Writing the release
keep it short, active voice, stick to the facts dont exaggerate
When talking to the media be prepared to respond to impromptu questions
have a short statement ready, lead with important info
For Local TV determine appropriate vehicle
News release, PSA, press conference or other interview
A roll
a fully produced news story
B roll
all the sound bites interviews and facts but not a news story
Focus on audience interests, know and use news angle, keep it short and simple, identify the sponsor but dont advertise, include action
News Conferences
Use them only when necessary. Ex. Great news, information is too complex for a release or reporters have questions
Time of news conferences and media interviews
avoid deadlines, choose slow news days
Facilites for a news conference or interview
Large enough to handle media, close to event, rooms designed for conferences
Online media centers
must be easy to access and use, have correct spelling and have accurate contact info
updating the media centers regularly
key for media to use them, helps ensure reporters go to your site for info
learn about the reporters you are mailing, including beats and interests. Remove them from contacts if they ask
Help reporters do their jobs
be available to assist them, be responsive to requests, be honest, be fair, pitch stories carefully
Teach the media to rely on you
if you do they will come to you for information
RSS (Really Simple Syndication)
Retrieves latest web content from a collection of sites, brings info together
Working with bloggers
expose organizational ties, unerstand the blog your pitching too, personalize the pitch
Use RSS for PR content distribution
use rss to give your PR material a wider audience, links may increase traffic to site

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