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Pr 312 Chapter 11


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CATI (Computer assisted telephone interviews)
researchers enter respndents answers directly into a computer system and the computer filters questions accordingly
IVR (Interactive voice response)
a survey in which respondents call a number and complete the questionnaire at their convenience with a computure asking questions and recording answers
Self-administered surveys
online administration of surveys is viewed as the inevitable wave of the future
Challenge that remains for online survey administration
obtaining adequate sampling frames or lists of email addresses form which researchers can select their samples
Defining the Problem
Probing and monitoring knowledge, opinions, attitudes, and behaviors of those concerned with the acts and policies of an organization
Planning and programming
Information gathered in the first step is used to make decisions about program publics, objectives, actions and communication strategies tactics and goals
Taking action and communicating
implementing the program of action designed to achieve the specific objectives for each of the publics to accomplish
Evaluating the Program
the final step, involves assessing the preparation, implementation and results
Monitoring the social environment
is the first step in strategic planning, and also the most difficult.
research training
tops the list of needed professional continued education
what is reasearch
the systematic gathering of information to descirbe and understand situations and to check out assumptions about publics and public relations consequences
Research before the program begins
is used to define the problem and formulate a strategy
Research during the program
is used to monitor the program progress in order to adjust the strategy or fine tune the tactics
research after the program
research is used to measure and document overall program impact and effectiveness
the process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and or nonverbal messages.
problem definition
begins with someone making a value judgement that something is either wrong, soon could be wrong, or could be better.
A useful problem statement
is written in the present tense, describing the current situation, it describes the situation in specific detail, who what when etc, a problem statement does not imply solutions or place blame
internal factors of problem analysis
must have a communication audit and an organizational almanac
communication audit
a systematic documentaiton of an organizations communication efforts to see how they communicate with publics
organizational almanac
serves as an essential organizational background reference, but also provides ideas and information
External Factors starting point
a systematic review of the history of the problem situation outside the organization.
Stakeholder analysis
the process of identifying who is involved and who is affected in a situation.
True or False: Research is simply an attempt to reduce uncertainty
SWOT Analysis
analysis of the internal and external factors in the problem situation. Assess Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and threats
Informal research methods
still dominate PR research. If viewed as methods for detecting and exploring then they are valuable. If used to describe problems they are invaluable.
Key informants
a variation on personal contacts, involves slecting and interviewing knowledgeable leaders and experts
Basis for selecting key informants
that they have a perceived knowledge of an issue
Focus Groups and community forums
used to see how people ill react to proposals and to gather information
Serendipitous findings
unexpected insights that are gained from spirited dialouge among participants
Focus Groups
a structured approach of 6-12 people from a target public. Sessions are videotaped and carefully analyzed
two types of Ombudsmen.
1 - investigates and solves problems, 2 - is there to protect the bureaucracy and create the illusion of a responsive organization
Toll free 800 number
are commonly used to obtain instant feedback and monitor concerns and interests
Analysis of incoming mail
Both mail and email can be used to reveal areas of favor and disfacor and information needs. May serve as early warning for ill will or problem relationships
Web 2.0 Online Sources
the internets darkside can be misleading because false and misleading information can be spread
district agents, field reporters or recruiters
live and travel around territories. Should be trained to listen and observe then report those observations
Subjective reports
must be used with caution
Formal methods of research
are designed to gather datea from scientifically representative samples using objective measures.
inferential statistics
the process of using data from representative sample to estimate characteristics of populations
secondary analysis
reuses data gathered by someone else, often for other purposes
most frequently used research approach to information gathering in public relations, however, is...
reasearching online databases.
content analysis
the application of systematic procedures for objectively determining what is being reported in the media
Trend Report
a quarterly newsletter that Naisbitt began publishing in 1968 based on the analyses of 206 different companies
are systematic queries of subsets of the population under study. Administered by mail, in person, phone and online
Advantages of Mailed Surveys
saves time and money, convinient for respondents, standardized wording, no interveiwer bias, access to respondents,
disadvantages of mailed surveys
no control over who responds, low response rate, lack of control over conditions in which its completed, lack of flexibility
In person surveys - advantages
high response rate, greater flexibility, more control,
in person surveys - disadvantages
greater cost, respondents answer differenetly face to face, less anonymity, harder to contact, interviewers can influence outcome
Telephone surveys
offer a fast cost effective way to complete interviews with greater anonymity
Major challenge of Telephone surveys
is sample selection. more than 95 percent of homes have a phone but not all are listed in directories. Computer assisted dialing has helped (RDD)
longitudinal study
if conducted as a panel or trend study is designed to learn how people change over time or to track a process
Panel Study
the same respondents are are interviewed several times during the study and are asked a series of questions
Trend Study
different samples drawn from the same population to track the change over time.
Formal research methods
follow the rules of science, use representative samples, and employ other systematic procedures for making the observations, taking the measurements and analyzing the data.

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