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Pharmacology Unit 2


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3 major categories of drug mechanism of action
Drug-receptor Drug-enzyme Non specific
How do drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system exert their effects in the body
Central Nervous system comprised of
Brain Spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system comprised of
Autonomic nervous system, somatic nervous system
The somatic nervous system is under ___ control and supplies ____ muscle
voluntary, skeletal
The autonomic nervous system is under _____ control and supplies the following tissues
Involuntary; 1.smooth muscle 2.cardiac muscle 3. glands/ducts
Tissues under control of the ANS have the property of _____ or _____ which means they can
automaticity, rhythmicity, generate electrical impulses
Primary divisions of the ANS are the ____(SNS)adn the _____(PSNS) nervous systems
Sympathetic, parasympathetic
The _____division, (fight or flight) controls/affects the body during times of _____
sympathetic , stress
The _____ division(rest and digest) controls the body during times of _____
parasympathetic, rest
Both divisions are 2 neuron systems that are comprised of pre-and post=____ neurons
In the SNS,pre-ganglionic neurons are _____ and post ganglionic neurons are _____. the ratio between pre-and post- ganglionic neurons is ___
short, long 1:17-20
In the PSNS,preganglionic neurons are _____ and post-ganglionic neurons are_____.the ratio of pre-to post-ganglionic neurons is
long, short 1:1-2
Neurotransmitters released at ganglia in BOTH divisions is ____. Neurotransmitter released postganglionically in SNS is _____. _____is neurotransmitter released postganglionically in PSNS.
Acetylcholine norepinephrine acteylcholine
Receptor sites in SNS
Alpha-1 beta-1 beta-2
Receptor site in SNS Alpha-1 primiarily located
smooth muscle of arteries
Receptor site in SNS Beta-1 primarily located ____
in the heart
Receptor site in the SNS Beta-2 primarily located in
smooth muscle surrounding bronchioles
Major transmitters of the SNS
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
Epinephrine,norepinephrine and dopamine are called catecholamines because
Their similar chemical structures
SNS receptor site Alpha-1 which neurotransmitter do they receive
SNS receptor site Beta-1 Which neurotransmitters do they receive
Receptor site in SNS Beta-2 Which neurotransmitter do they receive?
Receptor sites in PSNS
Muscarinic Nicotinic I
___PSNS receptor sites are located throughout the body in tissues under autonomic control
____PSNS receptor sites are located in the ganglia in both SNS and PSNS
Nicotinic I
Receptor sites in the somatic division
nicotinic II in skeletal muscle
Muscarinic, Nicotinic I and Nicotinic II receptors all receive the neurotransmitter ____
Drug classification that mimics SNS, ____-agonists that bind directly with receptor sites in the SNS
Drug classification the mimics SNS ____-blockers, or antagonists that block receptor sits in the PSNS and mimic effects of SNS
Drug classification that mimic PSNS ____-agonists that bind directly with receptor sites in the PSNS
drug classification that mimics the PSNS, ______-blockers, or antagonists that block receptor sites in the SNS and mimic effects of PSNS
Difference between selective and non-selective Beta-1 blockers?
Selective beta blocker work only on Beta-1 receptors (cardioselective) Nonselective beta blockers block beta-1 & Beta-2&cause bronchioconstriction
In what conditions are non-selective Beta-1 blockers contraindicated? WHy
CAD, asthma,COPD They constrict coronary arteries and constrict bronchioles
Beta-1 andrenergic drugs: Positive inotropic
Increase force of myocardial contraction
Beta-1 Andrenergic drugs: Negative inotropic
decrease force of myocardial contraction
Beta-1 adrenergic drug: Positive chronotropic
increase heart rate
Beta-1 adrenergic drugs: Negative Chronotropic
decrease heart rate
Beta Adrenergic drugs: Positive dromotropic
Increase speed of electrical conduction
Beta-1 adrenergic drugs: Negative dromotropic
decrease speed of electrical conduction
Enzymes ___ and ___ cause reuptake of NE back into the nerve terminal in the SNS.
When we give an MAO inhibitor like _____(enhances effects of Parkinson's drugs), we allow dopamine and NE to rise in synaptic cleft
Parkinson's disease is treated with ____ and ____ classifications of drugs because they decrease levels of ____ and increase levels of ____ in the synaptic cleft
Anti-cholinergic and dopanergic; Ach, dopamine
Myasthenia gravis is treated with _____ drugs because they increse levels of ____ in the synaptic cleft
anti-acetylcholinesterase, Ach
Histamines are produced in ____ and basophilic white cells.
Mast cells
The largest concentration of mast cells are in the ___ and ____.
lungs & GI tract
Histamine binds with ___ receptors located on ________.
H1, bronchiolar smooth muscle
List the effects of histamine on the body
Hypotension increased heart rate brochoconstriction GI complications response of Lewis increased gastric acid
Drugs that prevent mast cell from releasing histamine are called ______ or _______
mast-cell stabilizers or anti-allergic agents
Drugs that block histamine from interfacing with its H1 receptors are called ____ or _____
antihistaminic or H1 receptor antagonists
What is the major difference between 1st and 2nd generation antihistaminic agents
1st generation cross BBB-cause drowsiness, 2nd generation doesn't cross BBB, no drowsiness
How do decongestant drugs exert their action
5 major classifications of drug used to treat asthma
bronchodilators steroids Leukotriene antogonists mucolytics expectorants
3 major drug categories used to bronchodilate in asthma
adrenergic agents, anti-cholinergic agents, xanthine compounds
Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease common respiratory caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis
Disease involving destruciton of alveolar walls. Difficulty expelling air from lungs. Respiratory exhange reduced and shortness of breath Irreversible lung damage
irritation of respiratory tract (chronic caused by smoke or environmental pollutants
Respiratory condition characterized by shortness of breath and wheezing. Caused by bronchiolar constriction
Major effect in body of: CHOLINERGIC agonists
Effects of PSNS Limited to eye and GI/GU applications
Major effect in body of: ALPHA-1 adrenergic blockers
Block vasoconstriction
Major effect in body of : BETA-1 adrenergic blockers
Decrease heart rate
Major effect in body of : BETA-2 adrenergic blockers
Major effect in body of: ALPHA-1 adrenergic agonist
Major effect in body of: BETA-1 adernergic agonist
increase heart rate
major effect in body of: BETA-2 adrenergic agonist
Major effect in body of: CHOLINERGIC BLOCKER (anti-cholinergic)
mimic all SNS effects, limited to eye and GI/GU applications (atropine used as pre-op medication)

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