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geography exam 2 '08


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ocean currents
surface currents a product of the wind
factors responsible for wind and it's direction
pressure gradient, coriolis effect, friction
stationary front
cold moves faster than warm front, causes air to get lifted and creates dissolution of the storm
hot air sinks (gravity pulls down) and creates a high pressure cells
warm Front:
warm: tend to slide as closer to you; more clouds, more likely rain.
highest air pressure recorded
1083.8: in sibera at -50F; 1968
Thermohaline deep currents
deep: temperature and saltwater fairly new, water, will move an entire way around globe 1000 years mjoves reallydeep.
Hawaiin high
a sors High: mmiddle high temperature streams
a squall line
outside a cold front. pulls moist air out and creates a stronger storm
air pressure
weight air exerts on the earths surface. the closer to the ground the air, the more dense it is; the more dense it is, the more pressure.
the Polar Jet
1. modeled on the dishpan effect (lultz and mossby) 2. located in the 800-500 mb level, 3. characterized by strong vertical and horizantal winds shear. 4. waves in westerlies form rigges and troughs, 5, waves anchored by oceans and idlatitudinal mountains, 6. vaires from season to season. 7. steers surace torms of mid. latitudes.
Types of Jet Streams
Polar(westerly in both hemispheres) Subtropical (westerly in both hemispheres, poleward side of hadley cells, Tropical (north hemsiphere or asia and africa, weak)
ghost nets
are nets which have been lost or cut loose.
, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere.
the horizontal transfer of air
cold fronts
cold: blends wtropiht cold air moves rapidly. storms are intense; rainfall, not long, "train" sortms wil track along the front
air movements
large body of lower atmosphere wiht uniform conditoins of temp and moisture
Rossby Circulation
generalized middle and upper latitude circulation
happens at ground level and opposses the winds/
Jet Streams
are geostrophic winds, with stron narrow currents and concentrated along a quasi-horizontal axis.
when alot of condensation and cloud formation and releases alot of energy into the air, bombardment of ice criystals creat a charge. pos on top neg at bottm. the neg and positie particles meet in the air and create a circut, drains the energy buildup in the air
winds in response to fields pressure cells
Highs *anticyclones* and Lows *cyclones*
low prewssure in the center, the level of condensation lowers, this causes the temperature soto lower so it forms at a lower altitude.
chinook winds
air blws over a mountain and it rises, cools and releases its moisture. as the air descends on the leewards side it warms adiabatiaclly due to subsidence and compression.o
1. add moisture\water vapor to the atmosphere. 2. cool the air to dew point temperature
mercury barometer
bigger and harder to read
convectional uplift
environment: strong convection precipitation (unstable); Little convection, no precipitation (stable)
in the south hemispgere
Drainage winds
similar to mountain breezes; cold, dense air flows under the nifluence of gravity from higher to lower elevations
how do hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons
disturbances in easterlies and westerlies, start at africa coast, ssts must be above 81 or 21 degrees celsius. june-october, hurricane season
vertical mixing of air due to differences in the air.
types of wind
valley (anabatic pulls air up), Mountain (katabatic, pulls air pressure down), drainage, chinook
seasonal **** in the ITCZ
shifts wiht sun and changes stregnth with the sun
stages of a thunderstorm
cumulous, mature, disappating
center of storm
lowest pressure that causes clouds to be tall and have lots of rain
cell over the pacific
large stsorm and grew until it collapsed
Jet streams
low west to east in both hemispheres: westerlies
thurderstorm days a year
alot of unstale air over flordia area
frontal movement
warmer air over colder air
La Nina
extra strong normal--opposite than el nino
southeast asia, japan, etc.
Geostrophic winds
Pressure gradient and coriolis: winds aloft, above the fricitonal influence of the earth's surface. As soem air moves in response to pressure, it is turned progressively sidewards until pressure and coriolis balance.
downdraft of air that lasts les than or equal to 2.5 meters
relative humidity and air temperature equasion
Wall cloud:
local lowering of cumulonimus cloudbase associated wiht a humid updraft
rain bands
spiral bands of rain in a hurricane that are rain free
tropical cyclnes
hurricanes, typhoons
When High Velocity Winds were Found
in WWII, the B-17 bombers flight pattern
cyclones turn
Air pressure decreases where
decreases mostly in the troposphere
measuring air pressure
millibars on a barometer. the mercury and aeneriod
states of water
gas,liquid, ice...water releases latent heat or frost.
pressure gradient force
the variable that drives the movement of air between two areas at diferent pressurees. Highs and Lows.
cold temperature creates ice.
surface winds
Pressure, Coriolis, Friction: winds that experience frictional drag from the earth's surface.
coriolis force
force created by earth's rotation that causes winds to be deflected to the right in the north hemisphere and left in the south hemisphere. Strongest at the poles and none in the equator
maximum humidity
rises dramitically wiht rising temperature.
cool air rises and creates a low pressure cell as it circulates
precipitation processes
precipitation driven by uplift in atmosphere
types of uplift
1. convection-warm paroles of air 2. orographic--air forced up and over mountains 3. frontal: air masses collide and drive air upwards 4. Convergent: low pressue troughs
circumpolar vortex: strong winds around the polar latitudes
cooling the atmosphere to sufficiently to get cloud formation, means of cooling air:
1. advection: advective cooling, warmer air over acooler one. 2. radiation-radiative cooling 3. uplift: convective cooling
name to precip evaporates.
each gets a new glob
lowest sea level pressure
870mb within a typhoon tip. 1979
a layer of ice freezes to hail until it falls.
hot towers
bursts where rising air (up) pushes through storms. Helps indicate ferosity of storms. spiral rain bands come together aound the eye.
source regions based on two criteria
moisture content: , latitude artic or antarctic, polar, tropical, equatorial
hurricanse turn
counter clockwise
el nino southern oscillation; involves air and water circulation condition *event) that occurs; change in fishing conditions.
rossby waves develop and evolve
meridinal flow; ridges and trouphs make up the westerlies changes
Local gravity air movements
anabatic and katabatic winds
Diurnal cycle
maximum ater sun comes up
north and south america
saturation curve
saturation, non saturation, super-saturation.: max water hold at temperature. Volume\vol and weight\weight
cloud families
1. high: cirrus 2. alto 3.cumulus\stratus
air pressure and altitude
air pressure decreases as altitude increases.
orographic lifiting
wrings out moisture
Absolute lowest pressure to be measured
the bottom of a tornado-not yet found
aeneroid barometer
smaller, the size of a soccerball, reads small pressure charges
where they are from
from between 0 and 18 deg. latitude, as far off to the coast of africa.
Edmund Halley
astronomer and mathematician. Halleys Comet. Made the Matter of equalization of pressure.
top is a wet ball, the bottom is a dry ball. use distilled water and spin. the dry side is the air temp and the wet side is a change because the air cools and evaporation will be lower. the great er the drepession, the dryer the ball, the diferene is the air pressure.

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