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Bio 11: Chemistry of Life


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What are marcomolecules?
Large molecules that are made by joining several separate units such as joining several sugar units to form a starch molecule.
What are nutrients?
The raw materials needed for cell metabolism.
What are carbohydrates? What do they contain? (3 things)
Nutrients made up of a single sugar molecule or many sugar molecules. Contains only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Where do you get carbohydrates from? (5)
Potatoes, bread, corn, rice, and fruits.
What are monosaccharides? What are some examples? (3)
A sugar made up of a single sugar molecule is called a monosaccharide. Ex. Glucose, fructose, galactose.
What are disaccharides? What are some examples of disaccharides? (3)
Disaccharides are sugars made up of two sugar molecules. Ex. Maltose (2 glucose molecules, Lactose (glucose+galactose), sucrose (glucose+fructose)
All disaccharides are formed by a process called...?
Dehydration synthesis.
What is dehydration synthesis?
A series of chemical reactions that allow two molecules to bond by the formation of a water molecule.
A large carbohydrate molecule used by plants to store energy.
The carbohydrate that forms the cell walls of plant cells. Humans cannot digest this.
The form of carbohydrate storage in animals.
Fatty acids are?
Long chains of carbon and hydrogen joined together.
What is triglyceride?
A lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acids which are bonded together.
Difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated: Single bonds. Unsaturated: Double bonds.
What is glycerol?
A three-carbon molecule containing three hydroxyl (-OH) groups.
Fatty acids are...?
Long chains of carbon and hydrogen joined together.
What's tryglyceride?
A lipid composed of GLYCEROL and THREE FATTY ACIDS which are bonded together.

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