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Bio 11: Cells and Organelles


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Cell Theory. (There is three.)
- All living things are composed of 1 or more cells. - Cells are the smallest entity that retains the properties of life - New cells arise from cells that already exist.
Cytoplasm. Where is it? What's the function?
It's the fluid inside the cell. It holds organelles in place.
What's a chromosome?
Long threads of genetic material found in the nucleus.
Cell membrane. Where is it? What's the function?
"Skin" of animal cell. Second layer of plant cells. They regulate what comes in and out the cell.
Explain centrifugation.
Cells are broken open to release the organelles and other parts of the cytoplasm and then are placed in a test tube that is spun at high speeds in a machine called a centrifuge.
What are radioisotopes?
Unstable chemicals that emit bursts of energy as they break down.
What is protoplasm?
All the contents of a cell.
What's a gene?
Sections of a chromosome. Each contain a set of instructions.
Difference between: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic?
Eukaryotic: Has a true nucleus. (Well defined, has a nuclear membrane.) Prokaryotic: Does not have its chromosomes surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
What is cell fractionation?
The process by which cell components are separated by centrifugation.
Ribosomes What do they look like? What do they do?
Usually small blue dots attatched to rough ER. Where protein synthesis occurs.
RNA. What does stand for? What does it do?
Ribonucleic Acid. A genetic messenger that carries genetic info from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Layers of a nucleus? (Three)
Outside: Nuclear envelope Middle: Nucleus Core: Nucleolus
DNA. What does it stand for? What does it do?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid. Carries genetic information in cells.
Lipids What are they?
A chemical group that includes fats and oils.
What does selectively permeable mean?
It's like a barrier that allows some molecules to pass through but prevents other molecules from penetrating.
Function of flagella and cilia?
Helps cells move. Cilia sometimes help move particles.
Cell membrane. What is it made of? What kind of membrane is it?
Made of lipids and proteins. It has a selectively permeable membrane.
Nucleus contains... (four things)
Chromosomes, genes, DNA, RNA
What does the nucleus do?
Directs cell division and formation of cell structures.
The _________ is where all the work is done.
Function of mitochondria?
Provides cells with a form of stored chemical energy using cellular respiration.
Layers of mitochondria? (5 layers)
- Outer membrane - Intermembrane space - Inner membrane - Cristae - Inner matrix
What is cellular respiration?
A series of chemical processes by which nutrients are broken down to provide energy.
ATP What does it stand for? What does it do?
Adenosine triphosphate. A compound that temporarily stores chemical energy.
What are enzymes? Where is it located in the mitochondria?
Enzymes are protein molecules that increase the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed. It is found in the cristae of mitochondria.
What are amino acids?
They are organic chemicals that can be linked together to form proteins.
Function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
They are canals that transport materials throughout the cytoplasm.
Difference between rough ER and smooth ER?
Rough: Many ribosomes attached to it. Especially prevalent in cells that secrete proteins. Smooth: No ribosomes. It synthesizes fats/lipids. Prevalent in cells of developing seeds and cells that secrete steroid hormones.
Golgi apparatus. What does it look like? What does it do?
Looks like a stack of deflated balloons. It pinches off ends to create vesicles. It also stores, modifies, and packages proteins from the rough ER.
What are vesicles?
Small sacs or packets that are released by the Golgi apparatus. Important for exocytosis and endocytosis.
Difference between exocytosis and endocytosis?
Exo: Particles are RELEASED from a cell by fusing a particle-filled vesicle with the cell membrane. Endo: process by which the cell membrane WRAPS around a particle and PINCHES OFF a vesicle inside the cell.
What are lysosomes?
Vesicles that contain a variety of enzymes to break down large molecules. Only found in animal cells. (As WBC.)
What do lysosomes do? (Hint: Known as suicide sacs)
Destroys harmful substances in the cell by releasing their digestive enzymes, destroying bacteria and the WBC, which then creates a substance called "pus." Also destroys damaged or worn out cells.
What are plastids?
Organelles that function as factories for the production of sugars or storehouses for starch and some pigments.
What's a vacuole?
A large fluid-filled compartment in the cytoplasm of a plant cell that stores sugars, minerals, proteins, and water and is important in maintaining turgor pressure.
What is turgor pressure?
Pressure exerted by water against the cell membrane and the cell walls of plant cells.
What are chloroplasts?
Plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll and specialize in photosynthesis.
What are chromoplasts?
Plastids that store orange and yellow pigments.
What are amyloplasts?
Colorless plastids that store starch.
What are hybridomas?
Cells that result from the fusion of two different cells. EX. Cancer cells fused with white blood cells are hybridomas. It produces antibodies.

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