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anything & everything to do with the body
vocal/nonverbal aspects of speech (voice with no words)
perception of social& personal area
who keeps who waiting; punctuality
things we carry around w/ us; clothes people cars
interior decoration, music, smells, noise, lighting, temperature,etc.
primary group
types of small group comm; intimate face to face; emotional investment; interact with them as total human being
Secondary group
type of small group comm; more formal; impersonal; interact at status level
posture of involvement
attending skill; relaxed alertness
appropriate body motions
attending skill; moves in response to speaker; avoids movement
non-distracting environment
no significant barriers; inviting environment
more commonly used than lie "your outfit is unusual
Telling Truth
Alternative to lying
strongly held general ideas; general notions of what is good/ bad. 2 types (instrumental & terminal)
Instrumental values
means values
Terminal Values
ends values; values in & of themselves; where you want to end up
tag words
Words of affirmation
population or portion is questioned to reveal specific facts about itself to discover the DISTRIBUTION & INTERRELATION of certain variables relating to large #s of people
Types of Survey
how person is aligned to you
non intentional; message goes beyond explicitly stated message
Scientific method
particular system of rules, principles, procedures, & guidelines for collecting evidence
Content Analysis
involves DESCRIBING, ANALYZING, in an OBJECTIVE SYSTEMATIC WAY the CONTENT of lit, speeches, mass media, etc.
Case Study
complete and detailed RECORD of an EVENT, GROUP, or SOCIAL PROCESS
taking things out of code and putting into thoughts & ideas
one who takes in information
double bind
contradiction between content & treatment (message of model); contradiction of what you say & how you say it
WAY we get message from receiver to source
high fidelity
message gets to receiver w/ no problems (channel)
anything that interferes with fidelity; distorts message
internal noise
noise within the source or receiver
external noise
source in external/ physical world
original idea to be communicated; idea person
takes idea and puts into code - ie speaking or writing
meaningful structured group of symbols (Message)
(message) what is being communicated
(Message) how communicate something
a circular model; people switching back & forth from source & receiver; increases fidelity but takes more time
7th stage of relationship; decline in quality/quantity of comm; subtle hints of dissatisfaction more evident; withdraw from each other
8th step in relationship: going through the motions; behavior towards each other but there is no growth or joy
Step 9 relationship: create distance; direct or indirect
Step 10 Relationship; the end
step 1 relationship: showing interest; involves phatic comm
Step 2 relationship: after contact has been made; search for common ground & favorable qualities
step 3 relationship. First stage of true interpersonal relationship; spending time together; meeting friends; more commitment but still doubts
Step 4 relationship: take on identity as a social unit
Step 5 Relationship: symbolic action taken to show the world a relationship exists; builds social support
Why we choose to form relationships with some people & not other
1. physical appearance
2. Similarity
3. Complementarity
4. Reciprocity
5. Exchange
6 Competency
7. Proximity
8. Disclosure

physical appearance
why we form relationship: * in beginning of relationship
why we form relationship; comforting validates beliefs
why we form relationship: helps satisfy others needs
why we form relationship;
why we form relationship: benefits/ rewards
why we form relationship: attracted to talented people
why we form relationship: interaction allows to get information; helps benefits
why we form relationship: telling info can lead to liking (similarities/ trust)
Dimensions of Intimacy
Basic Drives for Humans to Communicate: need to belong to something larger than ourselves
Basic Drives for Humans to Communicate: sense of power of people or situations; authority, respect
Basic Drives for Humans to Communicate: need to give & get love, gentleness & kindness (overpersonal/ underpersonal)
physiological 5 senses step of perception
Perception: active stage; focusing, organizing interpreting & selecting process; varies from person to person
A complex process by which people recieve, select, interpret, & organize sensory stimuli into a coherent & meaningful picture
Kinesics: body movement directly translatable into a word or phrase
Kinesics: body movements that accompany verbal communication; emphasis or accent
Affect Display
Kinesics: body movements conveying emotion
Kinesics: movements that regulate the back & forth flow of speaking & listening
Kinesics: movements to establish comfort
Others (Kinesics)
Physical Characteristics (body temp, odor, physique, etc.)
Instrumental Leader
Types of Leaders: moves group toward achieving a goal
1. democratic
2. authoritarian
3. laissez faire

Socio-Expressive Leader
concerned with maintaing group harmony; mediate conflict
Vocal Segregate
Paralanguage: like sounds of language but not words - ie uh huh= yes or shhh= be quite
Vocal Fluences
Paralanguage: uncodified sounds used to fill gaps of silence & smooth over transitions
Vocal Qualifier
Paralanguage: use of voice to modify what you say to indicate emotional state -ie excited use high volume
Paralanguage: emphasis; pregnant pause; respect
Other (Paralanguage)
vocalizations: yawning, crying, sighing, laughing
3 Stages of Interpersonal communication: expectation of upcoming event; self concept influences
Direct Contact
3 Stages of Interpersonal communication: begin interaction; speak * anticipation stage affects
3 Listening Skills
1. attending
2. following
3. Reflecting

Listening Skill: physical attention
Listening Skill: paraphrase; reflects back what has been communicated
Why we cannot use common sense
1. We overgeneralize
2. We overlook
3. We have subjective biases
4. Contradictory (birds of a feather flock together vs opposites attract)

Functions of Words
1. Standing for Things
2. Perform Actions
3. Evoke Emotions
4. Reduce Uncertainties
5. Express Complexities
6. Promote Human Contact

Problems with words serving as references
1. Equivocation/Bypassing
2. Abstraction
3. Euphemism
4. Relative Language
5. Static Evaluation
6. Limited in Unlimited World
7. Subcultural differences

Problems with Words as Referring to things in the world: many ways to same the same thing or 1 word can have different meanings
Generalizing about similarities among events, people, objects, ideas
substitution of a blunt term for a pleasant one
Relative Language
Problems with words as references: certain words only gain precise meaning by comparison
Static Evaluation
Problems with words as references: using words to make reality seem more concrete, unchanging or static
Door Openers
Following Skill (Listening skill) non-coercive invites for someone to talk
Following SKill (Listening Skills): open ended & closed
Attentive Silence
Following Skill (listening skill): frees speaker to think, feel express; nudges to go on (no awkward silence); uses attending skills
Self Identity
Social positions that you occupy
Self Image
refers to ones sense of ones qualities, attributes, characteristics, & skills
sense of self
relatively stable set of perceptions we have about ourself
1. Self Identity
2. Self Image:
3. Self Esteem

Self Esteem
Emotionally ow you feel about yourself; how you stack up to others; positive & negative responses
Why we lie?
1. Save Face
- kind
- make ourselves look good
2. Avoid Tension or Conflict
3. Guide Social Interaction
4. Expand or Reduce Relationships
5. Gain or Protect Power/Resources
6. Protect yourself or someone else from punishment

To save face
Why we lie?: to prevent embarrassment
Avoid Conflict
avoiding hassle that would result if you expressed annoyance
Guide Social Interactions
Why we lie?: make everyday relations run smoothly
Factors w/in ourselves affecting Perceptions
1. Past experiences
2. Culture
3. Language
4. Motivation
5. Stereotypes
6. Roles
7. Moods
8. Attitudes
9. Psychological Tendencies
- selective exposure
- selective attention
- selective retention

past experiences
Factors w/in ourself that affect perception: shows us what is true and certain in the world
factors w/in ourselves that influence perception: generalizations about certain groups
factors w/in ourselves that influence perception: evaluative thoughts or feelings
Influential Variables in Interpersonal Communication
1. Degree of Perceived Openness
2. Dramaturgy
3. History of previous interactions
4. Channel

degree of perceived privateness
influential factors that influence interpersonal communication: important to know who your audience is; how private the communication is influences what we say & how we talk
Influential Variables in Interpersonal Communication: what stage you are on; sociological way of looking at world

1. front stage
2. back stage
3. deep back stage

History of Previous Interactions
Influential Variables in Interpersonal Communication: general & specific sense with certain people
Why we self disclose?
1. Get things off our chest- reciprocity
2. To make people think certain things about ourself
3. Manipulate
4. self clarification: helps better understand ourself
5. maintain & enhance relationships/intimacy

Deck Info