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psych l&m exam3


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Retrieval Inhibition
access to nonretrieved items seems to be blocked by successful retrieval of related items
Testing Effect
taking a memory test not only asses what one knows, but also enhances later retention
Mere Exposure Effect
more exposures usually increase liking of neutral stimuli because of fluency and decreased uncertainty
generalized conceptual knowledge used in understanding - meaningfully organizes concepts -tells us what to expect and also what unstated information we can infer
event schemas
*Thematic Organization Point* - high-level analogies between instances that have similar structure but differ in their (context?) *music or story genres*
*Memory Organization Packets* - events or facts that can be shared across different schemas * paying, tipping, make an appointment
specific details about an individual situation
Whorfian Hypothesis
language determines perceptions and representations
Rosch against Whorfian Hypothesis
- showed that people in Dani Tribe with very limited color vocabulary could still discriminate colors without teaching them the words for the colors - also showed same advantages for focal colors as did other cultures
Focal colors
colors that are consistently and quickly named
Mutual Influences of Whorfian hypothesis - storage and representation of concepts
Experience can give you richer representations - better understanding of relations and distinctiveness - which you may use language to express - using more precise terms may help memory - add to and/or cue distinctiveness
Learning new concepts
Best to start with consistency: establish structure THEN: increase diversity and generalization - elaborative processing
the impairment in recognizing objects
Category aphasias
defects in the comprehension and expression of language - have problems producing words in certain categories
Change Blindness
when sensory memory fails to guide your attention (fail to see changes)
Tonic Activity
Greater activity in brain BEFORE presentation of to-be-remembered items *overall attentional state - are you ready to process?
Turke-Brown Bottom Lines
- more activation of RELEVANT regions at initial exposure associated with better recognition (explicit memory) - also associated with greater priming-related reductions in activity and RT - Deactivation of regions associated with IRRELEVANT thought is important, too
The default mode
- Directing attention AWAY from internal irrelevant processes - vs. external (distraction)
Attention to Memory Model proposes that
- DPC is associated with the allocation of attentional resources to memory retrieval according to the goals of the rememberer - VPC is associated with the capture of attentional resources by relevant memory cues and/or recovered memories
Direct Retrieval
- A cue interacts automatically with information that is stored in memory - mediated by MTL and depends on bottom-up mediated by the VPC
Indirect Retrieval
- target memory is not automatically elicited by the cue: it has to be recovered through a strategic search process - mediated by prefrontal cortex and is attentionally demanding. depends on top-down mediated by DPC
Retrograde Amnesia
the loss or inability to remember information that was previously stored in LTM
Anterograde Amnesia
the inability to store new information in LTM
Source Memory
memory for the context in which an item or event was previously encountered
Mental Imagery
the visualization of images in the mind's eye' in the absence of a stimulus
correctly recognized old items in a recognition-memory test
Correct Rejections
correctly recognized new items in a recognition-memory test
Memory Neglect
Inability to spontaneously detect details in retrieved memories (impaired BU) but a preserved ability to search and find these details when guided by specific goals (spared TD)
involves a decrease in accessibility of information over time * Forgetting things that are irrelevant can lead to better memory for things that ARE relevant*
inattentive or shallow processing that contributes to weak memories of ongoing events or forgetting to do things in the future *Prevents from an overwhelming clutter of useless details*
Temporary inaccessibility of information that is stored in memory (strong feeling of knowing - TOT) *All information that is potentially relevant to a retrieval cue does not automatically spring to mind and cause mass confusion*
Attributing a recollection or idea to the wrong source - source memory errors *Good so that we do not retain all of the contextual details of our numerous daily experiences* Amnesics have advantage cuz less associations so less false memories
Refers to the memories that are implanted as a result of leading questions or comments during attempts to recall past experiences
Involves retrospective distortions and unconscious influences that are related to current knowledge and beliefs *No schemas would mean no development of accurate expectations of events that are likely to unfold in familiar settings
refers to the information or events that we cannot forget, even though we wish we could *Remembering some traumatic events may be good for survival!*
Power Law
rate of forgetting slows over time (transience)
TOTs occur because..
- Weak links (links aren't strong enough compared to others) - Competition (other things are getting in the way. once you select something, you push down competitors)
Consistency Bias
change memories of attitudes to reflect later outcome/attitudes - Implicit stereotypes: nonconscious bias - Implicit theories: if you think you should have changed you most likely have not
often don't pay attention to (and thus don't encode) information about source unless we think it is going to be important
focus on big ideas, not details - knowledge schemas: guide memory, but can also lead it astray
at a moment when individuals need to remember, the desired information is inaccessible or unavailable (misattribution)
situations in which some form of memory is present, but is misattributed to an incorrect time, place, or person
3 types of misattribution
1. incorrect memory source - may remember a correct item or fact but misattribute the fact to an incorrect source (people think they experienced an event when they only imagined it ) 2. do not have subjective memory source - absence of any subjective experience of remembering (cryptomnesia - when people attribute a thought to their own imagination when in fact they are retrieving it without awareness from a prior experience 3. false memory - when individuals falsely recall or recognize items or events that never happened
Jost's Law
if two memory traces are equally strong at a given time, then the older of the two will be more durable and forgotten less rapidly - similar cues will trigger old habits (sometimes bad behavior - addiction)
the stable level of learning performance - forgetting occurs only up to a certain point, beyond which the memory traces appear to be frozen - the level of initial learning determines the overall level of performance
knowledge of a foreign language
- words that were easy to learn were more likely to be well retained - items learned ovr spaced learning sessions were better retained than those learned under massed practice
Closed-loop skills
continuous. Each action provides the cue for the next action - riding a bike - basal ganglia (support motor structures)
Open-loop skills
noncontinuous. each action involves a separate response to a direct stimulus - typing on a keyboard - MTL (making and retrieving associations) and FL (which action to do now)
what makes something resistant to forgetting?
need BOTH relations (relationships) and distinctiveness
Proactive Interference
new information has to compete with information that you have learned before
Retroactive Interference
recently learned material will have strong connection if still heavily in attention/focus
Rhinal Cortex
feeling of familiartiy
Factors determining interference
- SIMILARITY: the more similar the response, the more difficult it is to sort them out and retrieve the right one - STRENGTH of connection: hard to overcome extremely strong connections - NUMBER: the more connections there are to choose from, the more likely you are to screw up and choose the wrong one
Part-set Cueing
getting some related information makes it harder to retrieve the correct response
cue-independent forgetting
spotlight on practiced words and suppression of all unpracticed words
Output interference
answering question 1 causes us to forget question 2 because all focus is on coming up with the answer to question 1
Organic Amnesia
- usually associated with damage to the MTL - episodic memory lost - problem with NEW learning
Psychogenic Amnesia
- functional amnesia associated with a very stressful event (crime/trauma) - new learning is fine, but autobiographical and semantic memory (who you are, etc.) are damaged
Disengagement Hypothesis
HC activation greater if you remember ROACH than if you forget it (lazy on no-think trials)
Active Inhibition Hypothesis
HC activation greater if you forget ROACH then if you remember it - if item comes to mind, successfully able to suppress it so that you can't remember it later on - more HC and DLPFC activation for to-be-suppressed items. GREATER INHIBITION
more total items remembered at later test than at earlier test
items remembered at later test that were NOT recalled on earlier test - not "more", maybe just different
Lead to memory errors
- response criterion: more willing to say something is a memory after time - post-event suggestion: loftus work on suggestibility (stop sign/yield sign)
Lead to remembering more
- Stimulus sampling/ Varied retrieval cues: different and perhaps better cues on later tests - retrieval time: Roediger showed that one 21 minute test could yield as good of results as three 7-minute tests
pathological loss of memory

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